PENINGKATAN FUNGSI BOEZEM MOROKREMBANGAN SEBAGAI PENGOLAH AIR LIMBAH PERKOTAAN MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ALGA – BAKTERI

SLAMET, AGUS (2016) PENINGKATAN FUNGSI BOEZEM MOROKREMBANGAN SEBAGAI PENGOLAH AIR LIMBAH PERKOTAAN MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ALGA – BAKTERI. Doctoral thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Boezem Morokrembangan merupakan salah satu Boezem terbesar di Kota Surabaya. Boezem berfungsi ganda, sebagai pengendali banjir, menampung air limbah perkotaan dengan area pelayanan ± 25% wilayah Kota Surabaya. Saat ini, Boezem tercemar berat, cepat terjadi pendangkalan, air efluen tidak memenuhi BMA Klas IV PP No.82/2001. Upaya peningkatan fungsi Boezem sebagai pengolah air limbah layak dilakukan. Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji kinerja sistim alga-bakteri untuk pengolah air limbah domestik dalam Boezem. Kajian kinerja eksisting Boezem dan kemampuan sistim alga-bakteri mengolah air limbah dalam skala laboratorium merupakan bagian penting dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian dilakukan dalam tiga tahap. Tahap pertama, kajian lapangan terkait kuantitas dan kualitas air limbah domestik, kinerja Boezem, dan dominasi spesies alga pada dua musim. Tahap kedua, kajian faktor lingkungan pada kinerja sistim alga-bakteri menggunakan HRAP skala laboratorium dengan proses batch dan aliran kontinyu. Faktor lingkungan dikaji pada uji kinerja proses meliputi durasi pencahayaan, kedalaman air, aerasi, salinitas dan waktu tinggal. Tahap ketiga, kajian Boezem sebagai pengolah air limbah berdasar hasil tahap 1 dan 2. Kajian dilakukan dengan menggunakan persamaan perencanaan berdasarkan biokinetika proses HRAP yang telah dikembangkan peneliti terdahulu Karakteristik air limbah domestik influen Boezem Morokrembangan meliputi rasio BOD/COD; N-NH3 +/P-PO4 =; Nt/Pt; surfaktan; salinitas dan pH memenuhi persyaratan pertumbuhan alga-bakteri. Boezem telah kehilangan kemampuan pemulihan diri akibat besarnya beban pencemar. Penelitian tahap ke dua menunjukkan bahwa sistem alga-bakteri mampu mengolah air limbah influen Boezem. Hasil terbaik HRAP dioperasikan dengan pencahayaan secara alamiah dengan HRT > 1,5 hari, dan kedalaman air 0,2 – 0,6 m. Penelitian menghasilkan nilai koefisien biokinetik tidak jauh berbeda dari hasil peneliti terdahulu dengan air limbah buatan dan kultur alga murni. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa Boezem hanya mampu mengolah air limbah domestik dengan konsentrasi BOD maksimum 31 mg/L. Sistem alga-bakteri dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pengolahan air limbah domestik influen Boezem dengan beberapa upaya pengelolaan. Pengelolaan Boezem meliputi pengendalian sedimen, kontrol HRT, penyediaan bakteri aktif untuk menjaga rasio alga/bakteri ± 0,004 dan penambahan aerasi. Media biofiltrasi dapat membantu pengendalian sedimentasi sekaligus penyedia biomassa aktif dari biofilm yang terlepas. Pemanfaatan sistem alga-bakteri dapat meningkatkan fungsi Boezem sebagai pengolah air limbah domestik sekaligus menyerap emisi CO2 yang dihasilkan. ======================================================================================================= Boezem Morokrembangan is one of the largest retention ponds in Surabaya, which is used as a flood controller, and retaining untreated wastewater from around 25% of Surabaya service areas. Currently, this Boezem is heavily polluted and prone to silting. Moreover, according to Government Regulation (PP 82/2001), its effluent does not meet the forth grade of Surface Water Standard. The efforts to increase Bozem function as wastewater treatment worth doing. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of algae-bacteria system to recover Morokrembangan Boezem. This research examines the existing Boezem self purification performance and capability via algal-bacterial system at high rate alga pond (HRAP) conducted at laboratory scale. The results are then used as a basic analysis for Boezem recovery. Research was carried out in three phases. The first phase was field observation on the quantity and quality of influent wastewater, the Boezem performance and the majority of algae species in the Boezem. Next, the second phase was to understand the effect of environmental factors on the performance of algal-bacterial system via HRAP in a laboratory scale. The experiments were performed in two different systems (i.e., batch and continuous flow) and five variables of environmental factors (i.e., duration of lighting exposure, water depth, additional aeration, salinity, and retention time). The third phase was analyses the capability of Boezem recovery using the results of two previous phases with HRAP equations that has been developed by previous researchers. First phase research showed that the carrying capacity of Morokrembangan Boezem has been lost, and the wastewater quality on influent was still met the requirement for growth and development of algae-bacteria system. The wastewater quality parameters i.e., BOD/COD, N-NH3 +/P-PO4 =; Nt/Pt; surfactants, salinity, and pH. The second phase research indicate that natural lighting and additional aeration result better performance of algal-bacterial system for treating urban wastewater.The value of biokinetic coefficient of algal-bacterial system were not considerably different from the results of previous researchers. The result of analysis showed that algal-bacterial system can not be used directly to recover Boezem performance. The system still can be used to treat wastewater on influent Boezem, but need several operational requirement to meet the effluent quality standard. The operational requieremenet i.e., Control sediment, HRT and added aeration on Boezem. HRAP system was only be able to treat urban wastewater with maximum BOD of 31 mg/L. However, by maintaining water depth, keep the ratio of algal/bacterial ± 0.004, and the concentration of active biomass, adding aeration during night, algal-bacterial can be used to treat for all influent of wastewater. Furthermore, biofiltration media can be used to help in controlling sedimentation so that increase the remediation, and to provide active bacteria for HRAP system. Utilization of algae-bacterial system can improve Boezem function as urban waste water treatment from its catchment area as well as an absorber of CO2 emissions.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sistem alga-bakteri, Boezem Morokrembangan, HRAP
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning > Environment Engineering > (S3) PhD Theses
Depositing User: Mr. Fandika aqsa
Date Deposited: 12 Jan 2017 02:18
Last Modified: 27 Dec 2018 07:15
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/1500

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