PRODUKSI HIDROGEN DARI BAGAS TEBU DENGAN PRETREATMENT IONIC LIQUID [DMIM]DMP (1,3-DIMETILIMIDAZOLIUM DIMETILFOSFAT)

AGNESTY, SILVYA YUSNICA (2014) PRODUKSI HIDROGEN DARI BAGAS TEBU DENGAN PRETREATMENT IONIC LIQUID [DMIM]DMP (1,3-DIMETILIMIDAZOLIUM DIMETILFOSFAT). Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Saat ini, bahan bakar fosil seperti batu bara minyak dan gas alam merupakan 90% Kebutuhan energy dunia. Padahal cadangan bahan bakar fosil sendiri telah semakin menipis. Selain itu, penggunaan bahan bakar fosil ini telah meningkatkan total CO2 dalam atmosfer bumi dan meningkatkan pemanasan global. Oleh karena itu, penggantian secara bertahap terhadap bahan bakar fosil ini, beralih ke bahan bakar alternative yang lebih ramah lingkungan dan dapat diperbaharui merupakan solusinya. Salah satu bahan bakar alternative yang ramah lingkungan dan dapat diperbaharui adalah hydrogen yang diproduksi dari bagas tebu. Metode penelitian yang akan digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 3 tahap, yaitu tahap pretreatment bagas tebu baik mekanik maupun kimia, tahap hidrolisis bagas tebu dan tahap fermentasi hidrolisat bagas tebu menjadi hidrogen. Proses pretreatment dibutuhkan untuk mengurangi hambatan dalam proses hidrolisis. Metode pretreatment kimia yang dipelajari dalam penelitian ini adalah kombinasi pretreatment basa dan ionic liquid. Dimana basa berfungsi mendelignifikasi bagas tebu dan ionic liquid berfungsi mengubah struktur kristalin selulosa menjadi lebih amorf. Pada tahap pretreatment secara mekanik, bagase tebu digiling dan diayak untuk mendapatkan ukuran tertentu, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pretreatment secara kimia menggunakan NaOH 1% w/v, dengan suhu 80oC, selama16 jam, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pretreatment ionik liquid pada rentang suhu 100-120°C selama rentang waktu 10 menit - 15 jam. Selanjutnya tiap sampel dihidrolisis menggunakan enzim selulase dan xilanase murni, pada suhu 60°C, pH 3 selama 12 jam. Selanjutnya hasil hidrolisat bagas tebu difermentasi oleh bakteri Enterobacter Aerogenes untuk memperoleh hidrogen. Hasil hidrolisis terbaik adalah pada Bagas Tebu yang dipretreatment dengan NaOH 1% selama 16 jam pada suhu 80°C yang dilanjutkan dengan pretreatment Ionic Liquid [DMIM]DMP selama 20 menit dengan suhu 120oC (NaOH+IL treated 20 min, 120°C). Dengan perolehan Yield gula reduksi sebesar 0.556 gr gula reduksi / gr total selulosa dan hemiselulosa. Hasil fermentasi dari hidrolisat bagas tebu terbaik, diperoleh yield hidrogen sebesar 0.463 mol Hidrogen/mol gula reduksi terkonsumsi. Yaitu dengan waktu fermentasi selama 48 jam. ====================================================================================== Presently, Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) represent about 90% of the world’s total commercial energy demand. But, they has limites resources. Because of this and the fact that atmospheric carbon dioxide also increases that caused by burning fossil fuels for energy, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy seems to be serious and the sole alternative for the world. One of renewable energy that enviromentally friendly is hydrogen that is produce from sugarcane bagasse. The methods that were used in this research, consisted of three main steps. The first step was pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. The second was hydrolysis step and the last was fermentation process. Pretreatment process consisted of mechanical and chemical pretreatment, those pretreatments were required to reduce some barriers in the hydrolysis process. Chemical pretreatment, that were studied in this research was a combination of NaOH and ionic liquid pretreatment. Where, NaOH function was to delignificate sugarcane bagasse and ionic liquid serves to change the structure of crystalline cellulose becomes more amorphous. Sugarcane bagase was ground and sieved to get a certain size, in mechanical pretreatment step and then it was treated by chemical pretreatment using NaOH 1% w / v, for 16 hours at 80oC, and then followed by ionic liquid pretreatment at 100-120°C, and for 10 minutes - 15 hours. Furthermore, each sample was hydrolyzed using pure enzyme (cellulase and xylanase), at 60°C, pH 3, for 12 hours. Furthermore, bagasse hydrolyzate was fermented using Enterobacter aerogenes to obtain hydrogen. After Hydrolysis process, the highest yield was 0.556 g reducing sugar / g of total cellulose and hemicellulose. This yield was obtain by hydrolize Sugarcane Bagasse that have been treated with 1% NaOH for 16 hours at 80°C, and followed by ionic liquid [DMIM]DMP pretreatment for 20 minutes at 120°C (this sugarcane bagasse substrat was called NaOH+IL treated 20 min, 120°C). The yield of fermentation of sugarcane bagasse NaOH+IL treated 20 min, 120°C hydrolyzate, was 0.463 mol hydrogen / mol reducing sugar consumed. This fermentation process was run for 48 hours.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: RTK 660.284 49 Agn p
Uncontrolled Keywords: Enterobacter Aerogenes, Bagas Tebu, Gula reduksi, Hidrogen, Pretreatment Ionic liquid, Pretreatment NaOH, Enterobacter Aerogenes, Sugarcane Bagasse, Reducing Sugar, Hydrogen, Ionic liquid Pretreatment, NaOH Pretreatment.
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP156 Crystallization. Extraction (Chemistry). Fermentation. Distillation
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > (S2) Master Theses
Depositing User: - Davi Wah
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2017 03:09
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2017 03:09
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/1715

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