Model Cold Chain System Untuk Peningkatan Kualitas Ekspor Tuna, Tongkol, Cakalang (TTC)

Lailossa, Grasiano Warakano (2017) Model Cold Chain System Untuk Peningkatan Kualitas Ekspor Tuna, Tongkol, Cakalang (TTC). Doctoral thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Ada dua dimensi penting dalam perdagangan perikanan Tuna Tongkol dan Cakalang (TTC) dunia, yaitu dimensi kualitas, bagaimana strategi untuk memenuhi standar kualitas ekspor TTC dan dimensi daya saing, bagaimana strategi agar produk TTC memiliki daya saing dan tetap eksis dalam perdagangan TTC dunia. Dari aspek kualitas, ikan memiliki karakteristik mudah rusak/busuk. (perishable) sehingga life cycle produknya menjadi pendek. Good Handling Practices (GHdP) menjadi unsur yang sangat penting. cold chain system adalah faktor kunci yang mampu menjamin kualitas TTC sejak ditangkap hingga diekspor. Kualitas TTC ekspor harus memenuhi standar internasional, standar regional (negara pengimpor) dan standar nasional Indonesia (SNI). Secara Internasional, Codex Alimentarius Commission mengeluarkan codex khusus yaitu : Code of Practise for Fish and Fishery Products tentang standarisasi praktis untuk produk ikan mulai dari handling, production, storage, distribution, export, import and sale. (Food and Agriculture Organization dan World Health Organization, 2009). Dari aspek ekonomi, sistem rantai pasok yang efisien akan mengurangi biaya produksi. Adanya pelarangan transhipment hasil tangkapan ikan dilaut, membuat sistem rantai pasok TTC mengalami perubahan, menjadi berbasis pada pelabuhan perikanan, artinya hasil tangkapan harus didaratkan di tempat pendaratan ikan dan diekspor dari pelabuhan perikanan. Hal ini berdampak pada sistem rantai pasok ekspor TTC di Maluku, dimana Pelabuhan Pendaratan Ikan (PPI) sebagai tempat pengumpul hasil tangkapan nelayan dan Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara (PPN) sebagai tempat ekspor. Penelitian ini bertujuan melakukan pendekatan integrasi cold chain system TTC di Maluku berdasarkan, pendekatan kualitas TTC (fuzzy expert system) dan efisiensi biaya operasi cold chain system sebagai akibat, dari pemilihan rantai distribusi terpendek pada rantai pasok TTC (genetic algorithm) di Maluku. Pendekatan pertama, metode yang digunakan Fuzzy Expert System, dimana basis pengetahuan (knowledge base) dari para pakar TTC (expert system) dipakai sebagai standar ideal. Disisi lain 11 kriteria/variabel dari standar proses masingmasing, diberi pembobotan Hasil pembobotan preferensi dari tiap kriteria/variabel setelah diberi atribut akan dijadikan sebagai rule based fuzzy, kemudian hasil simulasi berupa output quality akan dijadikan sebagai strategi peningkatan kualitas TTC agar mencapai grade ekspor (grade A dan grade B). Pendekatan kedua, dilakukan melalui dua tahap, tahap pertama, pemilihan jalur distribusi terpendek dari kapal penangkap ikan nelayan ke Pangkalan Pendaratan Ikan (PPI/PPN) terdekat, dengan mencari titik koordinat jarak terdekat. Tahap kedua, pemilihan jalur distribusi terpendek ke Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara (PPN) ke PPI dan kembali ke PPN untuk diekspor, dengan pendekatan Genetic Algorithm (GA). Hasil dari pendekatan pertama dengan fuzzy expert system, diperoleh bahwa permasalahan kualitas TTC, 51,40% dipengaruhi oleh task problem (task crucial) dan 48,60% dipengaruhi oleh quality problem. Dari 51,40% task crucial diperoleh, bahwa cara mematikan ikan merupakan task crucial yang paling berpengaruh terhadap proses kualitas TTC yaitu sebesar 11.00%. Hasil dari pendekatan kedua (genetic algorithm) adalah usulan jarak distribusi terpendek TTC di Maluku. Hasil kedua pendekatan ini, dijadikan masukan bagi cold chain management TTC di Maluku. ================================================================================ There are two important dimensions in commercial fisheries of tuna and other species; namely quality, which is about the strategy to fulfill the standard of export quality; and competitiveness, regarding the strategy to maintain the competitiveness of TTC and its existence in worldwide trade. In quality aspect, fish is perishable and this condition cause short life cycle for its product. Good Handling Practices (GHdP) has become an important aspect. The key factor of GHdP is cold chain system which coud be used to guarantee the quality of tuna and other species since it being caught to be exported. The export quality of tuna and other species should fulfill international standard (Codex Alimentarius Commission published specific codex: Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products about the standardized practice of fish products which include handling, production, storage, distribution, export, import and sale. (Food and Agriculture Organization dan World Health Organization, 2009), regional standard (importer country) and Indonesian National Standard (SNI). In economic aspect, an efficient supply chain system will decrease production cost. The cause of prohibition against transhipment of fish catchment will change the tuna and other species supply chain system be fishing port based. Meaning, that the catchment should be landed in fishing vessel’s port and exported from archipelago fishing port. The aims of the study were to conduct an integrated approach of cold chain system based on TTC (fuzzy expert system) and the efficiency of operational cost of cold chain system as a consequence of shortest distribution in supply chain of TTC (genetic algortihm) in Maluku. The first approach is Fuzzy Expert System. The Fuzzy Expert System is knowledge based of TTC expert wich used as ideal standard. In addition there were 11 criteria / variables from each standard processed measured. The results of each measurement is attributed and will be used as rule bassed fuzzy. Then, the results of simulation as output quality will be used as a strategy to increase TTC quality to meet export grades ( grade A and grade B). The second approach is conducted on two stages. First, choosing the shortest distribution route from fishing vessels to the nearest fishing vessel’s port. Secondly, choosing the shortest distribution route from archipelago fishing port to fishing vessel’s port to take fishers catchment and back to archipelago fishing port for export by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The result of the first approach using fuzzy expert system shows that the TTC quality problems are 51,40% affected by task problem (task crucial) and 48,60% affected by quality problem. From the 51,40% of task crucial, it was obtained that the way to kill the fish is the most influencing task crucial on the process of TCC quality of 11.00%. The result of the second approach (genetic algorithm) was the proposed of shortest distribution distance of TTC in Maluku. Therefore, the result of two methods approach are recomended for cold chain management of TTC in Maluku.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cold Chain Systems, Kualitas Tuna Tongkol Cakalang, Maluku, Fuzzy Expert System, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Quality of Tuna and Other’s Species
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD30.28 Planning. Business planning. Strategic planning.
V Naval Science > VM Naval architecture. Shipbuilding. Marine engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Marine Technology > Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering > (S3) PhD Theses
Depositing User: Mrs Anis Wulandari
Date Deposited: 12 May 2017 08:53
Last Modified: 27 Dec 2017 01:49
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/41262

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