Model Sistem Dinamik Pada Pengembangan Pengelolaan Sampah Kecamatan Gubeng, Kota Surabaya

Agustia, Yevi Putri (2014) Model Sistem Dinamik Pada Pengembangan Pengelolaan Sampah Kecamatan Gubeng, Kota Surabaya. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Potensi reduksi sampah di Kecamatan Gubeng hanya sebesar 5,17 %. Jumlah reduksi sampah sangat sedikit dibandingkan dengan target reduksi sampah sebesar 20% pada tahun 2020. Reduksi sampah dari sektor formal dan informal di Kecamatan Gubeng belum terukur secara keseluruhan sehingga perlu dilakukan penentuan persentase reduksi. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan melakukan pengukuran komposisi sampah fasilitas selama 8 hari berturut-turut, pendataan gerobak masuk tiap TPS, pengukuran reduksi sampah di berbagai sektor, dan pengumpulan data sekunder. Penelitian mencakup perhitungan reduksi sampah, emisi gas rumah kaca, biaya pengelolaan sampah dengan menerapkan berbagai skenario. Skenario yang digunakan yaitu skenario TPA (tidak melakukan reduksi apapun), skenario Bank Sampah (reduksi sampah berdasarkan partisipasi masyarakat melalui bank sampah dan komposter) dan Skenario Daur Ulang (reduksi sampah berdasarkan potensi recovery material melalui bank sampah, komposter, rumah kompos dan pemulung). Ketiga skenario tersebut dipilih yang memiliki persentase reduksi sampah terbesar. Pengembangan skenario dilakukan pada skenario terpilih dan menghasilkan alternatif kebijakan yang paling memungkinkan untuk mencapai target reduksi. Penelitian menghasilkan struktur model dinamik pengelolaan sampah Kecamatan Gubeng, Kota Surabaya yang disimulasikan hingga tahun 2020. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Skenario dengan reduksi sampah terbesar adalah skenario Daur Ulang. Reduksi sampah skenario Daur Ulang di Kecamatan Gubeng tahun 2013 sebesar 6,22% dan menurun menjadi 5,50% pada tahun 2020 (1,31%; 1,14% reduksi di rumah kompos, 1,90%; 1,72% reduksi di komposter, 0,16%; 0,18% reduksi di bank sampah dan 2,85%; 2,47% reduksi pemulung di TPS). Perbaikan skenario Daur Ulang yang paling realistis yaitu perbaikan skenario yang melibatkan peran masyarakat 22,81%, pemerintah 5,67%, sektor informal 12,29% dan pihak swasta 59,22% dengan peningkatan reduksi sampah sebesar 1,73% tiap tahun. Skenario perbaikan menggunakan sistem dasawisma (1 komposter untuk 10 KK) untuk pemukiman serta penambahan komposter dan rumah kompos untuk fasilitas. Rumah kompos yang harus dibangun sebanyak 5 unit (3 unit di dekat pasar dan 2 unit di perguruan tinggi). Jumlah komposter sebanyak 4.621 unit yaitu 4.154 unit komposter pemukiman (8 unit/RT) dan 467 unit komposter fasilitas (1 unit/fasilitas) serta 26 unit Bank (jumlah nasabah 1.174 KK). Pada tahun 2020, penambahan fasilitas tersebut meningkatkan persentase reduksi sebesar 20,09% dengan reduksi sampah sebesar 6.149,43 ton/tahun (3,65 kali lebih besar dibandingkan kondisi eksisting). Biaya yang dibutuhkan sekitar Rp. 8.436.659.400 untuk pengadaan fasilitas tersebut. Reduksi emisi GRK sebesar 4.760.254 ton/tahun (4,52% dari skenario Daur Ulang). ============================================================================= Waste reduction potential of Gubeng District was 5.17%. The waste reduction was very small compared with waste reduction target 20% in 2020. Waste reduction from the formal and informal sector in Gubeng District, Surabaya had not measured yet so it is necessary to determine the reduction percentage. The research was conducted by measuring waste composition of facilities at transfer depo for 8 days in a row, collected carts entrance data for each transfer depo, waste reduction measured in the various sectors and collected data base for the model. The study included waste reduction, greenhouse gas emissions, waste management costs calculation by various scenarios. The scenarios used are Landfill scenario (no reduction action), Solid Waste Bank scenario (waste reduction based on community participation by solid waste banks and individual composters) and Recycling Scenario (waste reduction based on material potential recovery through solid waste banks, individual composters, composting house and scavengers). Then a scenario was seclected by the largest percentage of waste reduction. Improvement of the selected scenario performed to produced the best possible policy alternatives to achieve the reduction targets. The study’s resulted in a dynamic model structure of waste management in Gubeng District, Surabaya and simulated until year 2020. The Recycling Scenario has the largest waste reduction. Waste reduction of Recycling scenario in Gubeng District in 2013 was 6.22 % and decreased to 5.50 % in 2020 (1.31 %; 1.14 % reduction in composting house, 1.90 %; 1.72 % reduction in individual composters, 0.16 %; 0.18 % reduction in solid waste banks and 2.85 %; 2.47% reduction from scavengers in transfer depo). The most realistic improvement of Recycling Scenario involved integrated participation from public (22.81 %), government (5.67 %), informal sector (12.29 %) and private sector (59,22%) with 1,73% annual increase of waste reduction. Improvement for the scenario was selected by dasawisma system (1 composter per 10 households) for residentials and added individual composters and composting houses for facilities. Composting House needed to be built was 5 units (3 units near market and 2 units in college). Individual composter needed as much as 4,621 units which consist of 4,154 units for residential composter (8 units/RT) and 467 units for facilities (1 unit/facility) and 26 units of Solid waste bank (1,174 households customers). In 2020, the addition of these facilities increased the reduction percentage by 20.09 % with 6149.43 tons/year (3.65 times greater than existing conditions) waste reduction. Approximated cost was Rp 8,436,659,400 for the extra facilities. GHG emission reductions was 4,760,254 tons/year (4.52 % of Recycling scenario).

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: RTL 628.445 Agu m
Uncontrolled Keywords: model dinamik; pengelolaan sampah; pengembangan skenario; reduksi sampah; dynamic model; improvement scenario; waste management; waste reduction percentage
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning > Environment Engineering > (S2) Master Theses
Depositing User: Mrs Anis Wulandari
Date Deposited: 18 May 2017 04:36
Last Modified: 18 May 2017 04:36
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/41311

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