Pengaruh Jenis Pelarut dan Temperatur Terhadap Total Phenolic Content, Total Flavonoid Content, dan Aktivitas Antioksidan di Ekstrak Daun Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum)

Yohed, Imelia and Kristianita, Rachel Angie (2017) Pengaruh Jenis Pelarut dan Temperatur Terhadap Total Phenolic Content, Total Flavonoid Content, dan Aktivitas Antioksidan di Ekstrak Daun Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum). Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophylllum) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku obat. Hampir setiap bagian tanaman nyamplung bermanfaat dalam menyembuhkan luka, peradangan, dan pengobatan penyakit. Saat ini, banyak penelitian mengenai tanaman nyamplung. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui senyawa bioaktif yang terkandung di tanaman nyamplung, termasuk daunnya. Secara tradisional, daun nyamplung digunakan dalam mengobati iritasi pada mata dan mengobati luka. Penelitian mengenai daun nyamplung berfokus pada analisa kandungan fitokimia, karakteristik obat, dan kandungan senyawa bioaktif. Metode yang umum digunakan dalam analisa tersebut adalah ekstraksi dengan pelarut (solvent extraction). Berdasarkan penelitian yang sudah ada, daun nyamplung mengandung senyawa fitokimia, seperti tannin, terpenoid, alkaloid, flavonoid, dan sebagainya. Ekstrak daun nyamplung juga berpotensi sebagai zat anti-kanker payudara, anti-iritasi (anti-inflammatory), dan zat obat lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh jenis pelarut, konsentrasi pelarut, dan temperatur terhadap yield ekstrak, Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), dan aktivitas antioksidan di ekstrak daun nyamplung. Daun nyamplung diekstraksi dengan N-Heksana terlebih dahulu untuk menghilangkan senyawa non-polar (non-polar removal), untuk selanjutnya diekstraksi untuk mendapatkan crude extract daun nyamplung. Dalam ekstraksi daun nyamplung, terdapat tiga jenis pelarut dan konsentrasi yang digunakan: methanol (konsenstrasi 50, 80, dan 100%), etanol (50, 80, dan 100%), dan aseton (50, 80, dan 100%). Tiga temperatur digunakan dalam ekstraksi: 30, 45, dan 60°C. Crude extract daun nyamplung kemudian dianalisa TPC, TFC, dan aktivitas antioksidannya sesuai dengan metode. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa konsentrsi pelarut berpengaruh signifikan terhadap yield ekstrak, hasil TPC, dan hasil TFC (P-value<0,05), sedangkan jenis pelarut tidak mempengaruhiketiganya secara signifikan (P-value>0,05). Temperatur ekstraksi secara signifikan hanya mempengaruhi hasil TPC (P-value<0,05). Hasil analisa free radical scavenging dengan DPPH menunjukkan bahwa daun nyamplung memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang tinggi, karena tingginya kandungan fenolik dan flavonoid. Kondisi optimum yang menghasilkan %yield tertinggi adalah aseton 50% suhu 60°C (18,67%). Kondisi optimum yang menghasilkan TPC tertinggi adalah metanol 50% 45°C (292,044 mg GAE/gram ekstrak). Kondisi optimum yang menghasilkan TFC tertinggi adalah metanol 50% 30°C (1289 mg QE/gram ekstrak). ======================================================================================================== Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) is one of the plant that is used as medicines. Almost every part of nyamplung is useful to treat wounds, inflammation, and cure diseases. Nowadays, there are many experiments about nyamplung. The objective of those experiments is identifying the bioactive compound contained in nyamplung. One part of nyamplung, that is in developing, is the leaves. Traditionally, nyamplung leaves are used to treat inflammation in eyes and treat wounds. The research about nyamplung leaves is focused on the analysis of the phytochemical content, the characteristic of medicine, and the bioactive compound content. The common method used in analyzing those contents are solvent extraction method. Based on the recent studies, nyamplung leaves contain phytochemical content, such as tannin, terpenoid, alkaloid, flavonoid, etc. The extract of nyamplung leaves are potential to be the cure of breast cancer (anticancer drugs), anti-inflammatory drugs, and other medicines. The objectives of this experiment were to analyze to effect of types of solvent, concentration of solvent, and temperature in relation to extract yield, Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), and antioxidant activities in nyamplung leaves extract. First, the leaves of nyamplung were extracted using N-Hexane to remove the non-polar fraction contained in nyamplung leaves. Then, they were extracted again to obtain the crude extract. In the extraction of nyamplung leaves, three types of solvent and concentration were used: methanol (50, 80 and 100%), ethanol (50, 80, and 100%), and acetone (50, 80 and 100%). Three temperatures were used in the extraction: 30, 45, and 60°C. The crude extracts were analyzed to determine the value of TPC, TFC, and the antioxidant activity, according to the method. The result of the experiment shows that concentration of solvent was significantly affecting the yield of the extract, TPC, and TFC (P-value<0,05), while types of solvent was not significantly affecting the three parameters (P-value>0,05). Moreover, temperature of extraction was significantly affecting the TPC value (P-value<0,05). The analysis of free radical scavenging with DPPH showed that nyamplung leaves had a high antioxidant activity due to the high content of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The optimum condition that gives the highest %yield is acetone 50% at temperature 60°C (18,67%). The optimum condition that gives the highest value of TPC is methanol 50% at temperature 45°C (292,044 mg GAE/gram extract). The optimum condition that gives the highest value of TFC is methanol 50% at temperature 30°C (1289 mg QE/gram extract).

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Daun nyamplung, Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), DPPH, Metanol, Etanol, Aseton,Temperatur, Senyawa Bioaktif.
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP156 Crystallization. Extraction (Chemistry). Fermentation. Distillation
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Imelia Yohed
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2017 02:09
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2017 04:12
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/43646

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