Karakterisasi unjuk kerja mesin diesel sistem dual fuel biodiesel-syngas hasil gasifikasi pellet municipal solid waste (msw) dengan variasi mass flow rate udara menggunakan blower

Ekabimaranto, Fandi Ahmad (2017) Karakterisasi unjuk kerja mesin diesel sistem dual fuel biodiesel-syngas hasil gasifikasi pellet municipal solid waste (msw) dengan variasi mass flow rate udara menggunakan blower. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Sistem diesel dual fuel adalah diesel yang digerakkan dengan menggunakan dua jenis bahan bakar yaitu bahan bakar gas dan bahan bakar diesel sebagai pilot fuel. Pada diesel dual fuel dengan bahan bakar biodiesel dan syngas hasil gasifikasi pellet municipal solid waste, syngas dimasukkan ke ruang bakar melalui intake manifold, sehingga syngas bercampur dengan udara yang masuk pada ruang bakar. Sistem dual-fuel umumnya mengalami permasalahan pada berkurangnya rasio udara dan bahan bakar. Jumlah udara pembakaran menjadi berkurang disebabkan adanya pemasukan syngas pada intake, hal tersebut menyebabkan AFR menjadi lebih rendah. AFR yang rendah menyebabkan terjadinya campuran yang kaya bahan bakar, sehingga effisiensi thermal menjadi lebih rendah karena bahan bakar tidak terbakar secara menyeluruh. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian dipasang blower sebagai penambah suplai udara masuk. Dengan penambahan suplai udara masuk diharapkan performa dan efisiensi dari mesin diesel meningkat. Karakterisasi unjuk kerja sistem dual-fuel ini dilakukan dengan mengoperasikan mesin diesel pada putaran konstan 2000 rpm dan pembebanan dari 200 W hingga 2000 W dengan interval 200 W. Sistem pemasukan syngas menggunakan mixer venturi secara langsung dari reaktor syngas yang alirannya dianggap konstan. Keberadaan syngas pada ruang bakar menyebabkan jumlah udara pembakaran menjadi berkurang sehingga perlu ditambahkan blower untuk menambah suplai udara pembakaran. Blower diatur kecepatannya dengan cara mengatur arus listrik menggunakan dimmer sehingga dihasilkan variasi mass flow rate yaitu: 0,0048 kg/s; 0,0055 kg/s; 0,0061 kg/s dan 0,0068 kg/s. Mass flow rate dapat diukur dengan membaca tekanan udara pada manometer digital yang terhubung dengan pitot tube pada saluran udara masuk. Pengukuran dilakukan terhadap: arus dan tegangan listrik tiap pembebanan, waktu konsumsi bahan bakar biodiesel 10 ml, temperatur operasi: gas buang, oli mesin, pendingin radiator dan temperatur mesin serta debit syngas yang masuk ke ruang bakar. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan, dengan penambahan syngas pada sistem dual-fuel dan penambahan mass flow rate udara dapat mensubtitusi biodiesel tertinggi 48,485% dibanding single fuel. Nilai specific fuel consumption (sfc) biodiesel mengalami penurunan tertinggi 41,19% dibanding single fuel. Effisiensi thermal mengalami peningkatan tertinggi 46,4% dari kondisi single fuel. Diesel dual-fuel dengan penambahan mass flow rate (ṁ) udara dapat menaikan AFR rata-rata sebesar 44% dibandingkan pada single fuel. =================================================================================== Fuel diesel system is a diesel powered by using two types of fuel that is fuel gas and diesel fuel as a pilot fuel. In dual fuel diesel with biodiesel fuel and syngas gasification pellet municipal solid waste, syngas inserted into the engine through the intake manifold, so syngas mixed with air intake in the combustion chamber. Dual-fuel systems generally have a problems with reduced air and fuel ratios. The amount of combustion air becomes reduced due to the introduction of syngas in the intake, thus causing the AFR to be lower. A low AFR leads to a fuel-rich mixture, resulting in lower thermal efficiency as the fuel does not burn completely. Therefore, in the study installed a blower as an additional supply of incoming air. With the addition of air supply coming in is expected the performance and efficiency of diesel engines increases. Characterization of dual-fuel system performance is done by operating a diesel engine at 2000 rpm constant speed and loading from 200 W to 2000 W at intervals of 200 W. Syngas input system using venturi mixer directly from syngas reactor whose flow is considered constant. The presence of syngas in the combustion chamber causes the amount of combustion air to be reduced so that the blower needs to be added to increase the combustion air supply. Blower regulated speed by regulating the electric current using dimmers so that the mass flow rate variations are produced: 0.0048 kg / s; 0.0055 kg / s; 0.0061 kg / s and 0.0068 kg / s. Mass flow rate can be measured by reading the air pressure on a digital manometer connected to the pitot tube in the inlet airway. Measurements were made to: electric current and voltage per load, 10 ml biodiesel fuel consumption time, operating temperature: exhaust gas, engine oil, radiator coolant and engine temperature and syngas discharge entering the combustion chamber. The results of this study were obtained, with the addition of syngas on the dual-fuel system and the addition of air mass flow rate can substitute the highest biodiesel 48.485% compared to single fuel. The value of specific fuel consumption (sfc) of biodiesel experienced the highest decrease of 41.19% compared to single fuel. Thermal efficiency experienced the highest increase of 46.4% of single fuel conditions. Diesel dual-fuel with the addition of mass flow rate (ṁ) air can increase the average AFR by 44% compared to single fuel.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: diesel dual-fuel, syngas, biodiesel, mass flow rate, AFR
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ164 Power plants--Design and construction
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ799 Diesel motor--Electronic control.
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP359 Biogas
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Mechanical Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Ekabimaranto Fandi Ahmad
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2017 06:37
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2017 01:55
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/44413

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