Studi Komparasi Peran Biobased Surfactant dari Kompos dengan Commercial Surfactant dalam Pemisahan Hidrokarbon pada Tanah Tercemar Crude Oil

Wulandari, Dwiyanti Agustina (2017) Studi Komparasi Peran Biobased Surfactant dari Kompos dengan Commercial Surfactant dalam Pemisahan Hidrokarbon pada Tanah Tercemar Crude Oil. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Tanah terkontaminasi hidrokarbon membutuhkan remediasi karena sifat hidrokarbon yang sulit diuraikan dan bersifat toksik. Salah satu teknik bioremediasi untuk penyisihan hidrokarbon pada tanah tercemar adalah co-composting. Kompos dapat berperan sebagai sumber biobased surfactant. Compost humic acid-like (cHAL) yang memiliki sifat mirip surfaktan komersial dapat terbentuk selama proses co-composting. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: (a) menentukan karakteristik cHAL yang terbentuk selama proses co-composting tanah terkontaminasi crude oil, (b) menentukan kemampuan cHAL sebagai biobased surfactant dalam pemisahan hidrokarbon, serta (c) menentukan perbandingan cHAL dengan surfaktan komersial pada bioremediasi tanah tercemar crude oil. Penelitian berskala laboratorium ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan 42 reaktor bervolume 3,5 L. Variasi yang digunakan adalah sumber dan konsentrasi surfaktan. Jenis sampah organik biodegradable yang digunakan yaitu sampah kebun dan sampah rumen dari Rumah Pemotongan Hewan. Rasio optimum tanah tercemar dan sampah organik biodegradable dari penelitian sebelumnya adalah 50:50 (b/b). Proses co-composting dilakukan secara aerobik dengan pengadukan manual setiap 3 hari sekali. Kemampuan emulsifikasi dan memisahkan hidrokarbon setiap isolat cHAL dibandingkan terhadap surfaktan komersial Tween 80. Kadar hidrokarbon, tegangan permukaan, kemampuan emulsifikasi, kandungan asam humat dan kemampuan pemisahan hidrokarbon diukur pada hari ke: 20, 40, dan 60. Kadar hidrokarbon diukur dengan metode ekstraksi soxhlet. Tegangan permukaan diukur dengan alat Tensiometer Du-Nouy, sedangkan kemampuan emulsifikasi diukur dengan alat vortex mixer. Kandungan asam humat ditentukan dengan metode ekstraksi asam basa. Kemampuan pemisahan hidrokarbon ditentukan dengan soil washing menggunakan metode agitasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan 2 ulangan. Kadar cHAL hasil komposting pada semua reaktor ada pada kisaran 0,372-1,117%. Penurunan tegangan permukaan berkisar 6,65-21,5 dyne/cm. Isolat cHAL dapat dikategorikan sebagai surfaktan, apabila dapat menurunkan tegangan permukaan lebih dari 10 dyne/cm. Aktivitas emulsi cHAL setelah 24 jam berada pada rentang 7,4–38,1%. Proses soil washing menggunakan cHAL menghasilkan pemisahan hidrokarbon sebesar 0,99–46,56%. Pemisahan hidrokarbon optimum oleh isolat cHAL sebesar 46,56%; 41,55%; 39,61%; 7,62%, masing-masing dicapai pada reaktor sampah kebun, campuran sampah dan tanah tercemar, sampah rumen, serta tanah tercemar (kontrol). Tween 80 mampu memisahkan 75,97% hidrokarbon pada kadar optimum 1,5%. Kemampuan pemisahan hidrokarbon optimum oleh isolat cHAL dari reaktor sampah kebun, sampah rumen, campuran tanah tercemar dan sampah, serta tanah tercemar (kontrol) masing-masing sebesar 0,60; 0,54; 0,51, dan 0,01 kali bila dibandingkan dengan Tween 80 pada kadar 1,5%. Kemampuan isolat cHAL dari reaktor sampah kebun, campuran tanah tercemar dan sampah, sampah rumen sapi serta tanah tercemar (kontrol) untuk memisahkan hidrokarbon masing-masing setara dengan kadar Tween 80 sebesar 0,98%; 0,87%, 0,83%, dan 0,106%. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa isolat cHAL yang terbentuk selama proses co-composting memiliki karakteristik dan potensi sebagai surfaktan. ================================================================= Crude oil contaminated soil needs remediation, because of the toxic and persistent characteristics of hydrocarbons. One of the bioremediation techniques for hydrocarbon removal is co - composting. Compost can play a role as biobased surfactant source. Compost humic acid like (cHAL) compounds, which can be formed during the co-composting process, have similar characteristics to commercial surfactant . The aims of this research were: (a) to determine the characteristics of cHAL, which was form during the co - composting process, (b) to determine cHAL’s performance as a biobased surfactant in hydrocarbon separa tion, a nd (c) to determine the ratio between cHAL and commercial surfactant for biorem e diation process of crude oil contaminated - soil. This labora tory scale research used 42 reactors of 3.5 L volume . Surfactant sources and concentrations were varied during the experiment. Yard waste and rumen waste from a slaughterhouse were used as composting materials . An o ptimum ratio of contaminated soil and com posting materials of 50:50 (w/w ), as resulted in a former research , was used . C o - composting process was conducted in aerobic condition with manual agitation every 3 days . Characteristics of cHAL isolates from each reactor were compared to those of Tween 80 , a commercial surfactant. H ydrocarbon content, surface tension, emulsification ability, humic acid content , and hydrocarbon removal were measured on 20 th , 40 th , and 60 th day s . Hydrocarbon content wa s measure d using soxhlet extraction method. Surface tension was measure d using Tensiometer Du - Nouy device, whereas and emulsification performance was determined using vortex mixer. Humic acid content was measured using acid-base extraction method. Hydrocarbon removal was measured using agitated soil washing method. The experiment was conducted in two replicates. The cHAL contents in the composting materials in all reactors were in a value range of 0.372–1.117%. The declining surface tension was in the range of 6.65 – 21.5 dyne/cm. The cHAL isolates could be classified as surfactant, if the declining surface tension was more than 10 dyne/cm. The emulsi fication performance of cHAL after 24 hours was in the range 7.4 –38.1%. The soil washing using cHAL isolates resulted in hydrocarbon separation efficiency between 0.99 and 46.56%. The optimum hydrocarbon separation by cHAL isolates from the yard waste, rumen waste, combined contaminated soil and biodegradable waste, and contaminated soil control reactors were 46.56; 41.55; 39.61 and 7.62% respectively. Tween 80 could separate 75.97% of hydrocarbon in an optimum concentration of 1.5% . The optimum hydrocarbon separation abillity by cHAL isolates from the yard waste, rumen waste, combined contaminated soil and bio degradable waste, and contaminated soil control reactors were 0.6 0 ; 0.54; 0.5 0 ; and 0.01 times respectively , when compared to that of Tween 80 of 1.5%. The performance values of cHAL isolates to separate hydrocarbon in the yard waste, combined contaminated soil and biodegradable waste, rumen waste, and contaminated soil control reactors were equal to 0.98; 0.87; 0.83; and 0.106% of Tween 80 concentrations respectively. This research concluded that the cHAL isolates, which were produced during the co-composting process, showed characteristics and performance potential as surfactant.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: biobased surfactant, co-composting, cHAL, emulsifikasi, hidrokarbon
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning > Environment Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Dwiyanti Agustina Wulandari
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2017 01:29
Last Modified: 06 Mar 2019 04:23
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/44444

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