Improving Surabaya River Water Quality By Observing Hydrological System Including Pollutant Sources and Optimizing Monitoring System

Sukmania, Nurmala Devianti (2017) Improving Surabaya River Water Quality By Observing Hydrological System Including Pollutant Sources and Optimizing Monitoring System. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Brantas sebagai DAS terbesar kedua di Provinsi Jawa Timur secara perlahan terkontaminasi oleh air buangan dampak dari pembangunan di Pulau Jawa, Indonesia. Sungai Surabaya, sebagai salah satu cabangnya, pada hakikatnya mengalir sepanjang beberapa kabupaten dan kota menuju Laut Jawa digunakan oleh masyarakat untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari termasuk sebagai air minum. Namun, banyaknya polutan yang masuk mencemari Sungai Surabaya menyebabkan kualitas air Sungai Surabaya menjadi buruk. Selain itu, pemerintah masih menitik-beratkan pada kuantitas seperti kontrol banjir, namun kualitas dan sistem monitoring sebagai salah satu aspek terpenting untuk memberikan informasi kepada masyarakat dan institusi masih belum dikontrol sepenuhnya. Tujuan tugas akhir ini adalah memfokuskan area-area yang berpotensial membuang air limbahan terhadap Sungai Surabaya dalam rangka untuk memberikan rekomendasi dalam optimalisasi sistem monitoring. Pada tahap awal dilakukan tinjauan pustaka untuk pendapatkan pengetahuan awal dan kemudian dilakukan wawancara dengan ahli. Data sekunder kemudian digunakan untuk melakukan studi ini dan perhitungan air buangan dilakukan dalam rangka untuk mengestimasi area yang berpotensi membuang air limbahan. Evaluasi monitoring dan beberapa rekomendasi dibuat dengan tujuan memperbaiki kualitas air Sungai Surabaya. Berdasarkan perhitungan air buangan, ditemukan bahwa lebih dari 60 desa yang terletak sepanjang Sungai Surabaya berdampak kepada kualitas air sungai karena membuang air limbah domestik dengan atau tanpa pengelohan air limbah, seperti fasilitas sanitasi, menuju Sungai Surabaya. Diestimasikan air buangan yang masuk dapat mencapai 15207.20 m3/day, dengan beban BOD dari air limbah domestik dapat mencapai 7749.34 kg/day dan konsentrasi BOD rata-rata adalah 482.97 mg/L. Data sekunder dari Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Brantas menunjang status air Sungai Surabaya sebagai air tercemar dengan membuktikan bahwa 6 dari 12 parameter yang dikontrol, termasuk parameter kimia dan parameter fisika, tidak memenuhi standar sebagai air kelas II sebagaimana telah ditetapkan oleh pemerintah. Data dari Program Penilaian Peringkat Kinerja perusahaan (PROPER) oleh Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup juga menunjukan bahwa setidaknya 16 industri melebihi kapasitas air limbah buangan yang diizinkan. Dengan bantuan Google Earth, dapat dilihat bahwa lokasi monitoring yang ada tidak sepenuhnya mengontrol area dan industry yang mencemari Sungai Surabaya sementara waktu yang dilakukan untuk memonitor Sungai Surabaya sangat kurang. Berdasarkan analisa diatas yang telah dilakukan, beberapa rekomendasi dibuat untuk optimalisasi sistem monitoring dengan harapan dapat memperbaiki kualitas sungai air Surabaya. Solusi dari tugas akhir ini adalah menambah lokasi-lokasi berpot ensi untuk dimonitor, pemakaian data logger, melakukan biomonitoring, dan penelitian lebih dalam untuk kemungkinan pengaplikasian sensor kualitas air kreatif. ============================================================================== Brantas River Basin as the second basin in East Java Province eventually contaminated by the wastewater as one of the impacts of development in Java Island, Indonesia. Surabaya River, as one of the sub-branches, flowing along some districts and cities toward the Java Sea that is being utilized by the community for daily needed including drinking water. On the other hand, more pollutants are flowing into Surabaya River, lead its quality becomes poor. Monitoring system has an important role to give information for the users and the government as a first step in order to make an integration and improvement over both the quality and the quantity. While the institution focus on quantity such as flood control, its quality has not been fully controlled yet, and monitoring stay behind. The purpose of this study is focusing on which areas are potentially flows excessing wastewater in order to conduct recommendation on optimizing the monitoring system in Surabaya River. A literature review was performed in order to obtain preliminary knowledge, and interview with experts were then conducted. Secondary data is used during this study, and analysis of wastewater is conducted in order to estimate which area(s) potentially dispose the wastewater. Evaluation of monitoring and some solutions are undergone in order to improve the quality of Surabaya River. Based on wastewater discharge calculation, it is found that more than 60 villages located along Surabaya River affected the quality by disposing the domestic water to Surabaya River, with and without wastewater treatment first such as sanitation facilities. It can be estimated that domestic waste flows to Surabaya River approximately 15207.20 m3/day, with estimation BOD loads from domestic wastewater up to 7749.34 kg/day and the average BOD concentration from domestic wastewater is 482.97 mg/L. Secondary data from Basin Authority of Brantas River in 2015 support the state of poor quality in Surabaya River by showing 6 of 12 measured parameters, including physical and chemical parameters, do not achieve the standard to be stated as the second class, as it stipulated by the government. Data from National Evaluation on Environmental Management (PROPER) by Ministry of Environment also shows that at least 16 industries excessing the allowed capacity of industrial wastewater. Based on observation at monitoring location(s) by using Google Earth, the existing location(s) are not fully controlling the villages and industries while the frequency of monitoring the quality is very limited. Based on SWOT analysis, some solutions are made in order to optimize the monitoring system that can lead to improvisation of Surabaya River water quality. These solutions include adding new potential location(s), attaching a data logger, the use of biomonitoring, and creative water quality sensor.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Surabaya River, Monitoring System, Water Quality, Sungai Surabaya, Sistem Monitoring, Kualitas Air, Manajemen Air, Optimalisasi
Subjects: T Technology > TC Hydraulic engineering. Ocean engineering
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD646 Sewage--Purification
Divisions: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning > Civil Engineering > 22201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Nurmala Devianti Sukmania
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2017 02:29
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2019 03:07
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/45787

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