Pengaruh Perlakuan Alkali (NaOH) pada Permukaan Serat Sisal terhadap Peningkatan Kekuatan Ikatan Interface Komposit Serat Sisal-Epoxy

Taures, Meidina Fitriani (2018) Pengaruh Perlakuan Alkali (NaOH) pada Permukaan Serat Sisal terhadap Peningkatan Kekuatan Ikatan Interface Komposit Serat Sisal-Epoxy. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Teknologi industri di bidang otomotif sedang berkembang pesat. Komposit sebagai salah satu material penyusun otomotif juga berkembang sesuai kebutuhan. Teknologi komposit yang sedang berkembang saat ini adalah komposit berpenguat serat alam. Di Indonesia perkembangan tersebut didukung dengan tingginya potensi negara ini dalam bidang pertanian dan perkebunan sehingga mudah untuk membudidaya tanaman yang dapat menghasilkan serat alam berkualitas. Salah satu serat alam yang telah dieksplorasi dan bernilai jual adalah serat sisal. Namun selayaknya serat alam, serat sisal mengandung zat ekstraktif seperti lilin berupa hemiselulosa, lignin, dan kotoran. Zat ekstraktif tersebut dapat mempengaruhi ikatan interface antara serat penguat dengan matrik. Sedangkan ikatan interface berpengaruh terhadap kekuatan tarik dan bending komposit. Semakin tinggi kekuatan ikatan interface, maka semakin tinggi pula kekuatan tarik dan bending komposit tersebut. Terdapat cara untuk menanggulanginya, salah satunya adalah dengan memberikan perlakuan permukaan pada serat sisal menggunakan larutan alkali (NaOH). Larutan alkali (NaOH) dapat mengikis zat ekstraktif sehingga kekuatan ikatan interface bertambah. Penelitian ini terdiri dari beberapa tahap, mulai dari studi literatur, perlakuan permukaan serat, pengujian tarik serat tunggal, pengujian morfologi serat, pengujian komposisi kimia serat, dan pengujian pull out. Proses perlakuan permukaan serat yang dilakukan dengan merendam serat pada larutan NaOH 5% dengan variasi temperatur larutan sebesar 50°C, 60°C, dan 70°C serta variasi durasi perendaman selama 3 jam, 4 jam, dan 5 jam. Serat tersebut kemudian dicuci dengan air bersih dan dikeringkan. Pengujian tarik serat tunggal menggunakan serat dengan panjang 15 cm. Pengujian Komposisi kimia serat menggunakan metode Chesson. Pengujian morfologi serat menggunakan mikroskop optis. Untuk pengujian pull out menggunakan mesin uji tarik. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa perlakuan dengan NaOH 5% dapat mengurangi kandungan zat ekstraktif. Jumlah pengotor dan lignin paling sedikit terdapat pada perlakuan 5 jam, temperatur 70°C, sebesar 1% dan 4%. Kandungan selulosa terbanyak dan hemiselulosa paling sedikti terdapat pada serat dengan perlakuan 4 jam, temperatur 70°C yaitu 89% dan 5%. Kekuatan tarik serat tunggal maksimal didapatkan dengan perlakuan selama 4 jam, temperatur 70°C yaitu sebesar 1.7442 MPa. Selain itu perlakuan permukaan dengan NaOH 5% juga mengakibatkan pengecilan diameter. Diameter paling kecil didapatkan dengan perlakuan selama 4 jam, temperatur 70°C sebesar 0,055 mm. berdasarkan pengujian pull out, perlakuan selama 4 jam, temperatur 70°C menghasilkan kuat geser rekatan terbesar yaitu 35,5 MPa. =============== Automotive industry technology is currently developing rapidly, as well as composite as one of automotive's materials. One of which, is the reinforced composite using natural fiber. The development of this type of composite is highly encouraged and supported in Indonesia with its high potency in agriculture, so it is easy to get the resources of high quality natural fiber. One of natural fiber that has been explored and has good market value is sisal fiber. However, just like any other natural fiber, sisal fiber also consists of extractive element which has wax-like characteristic, such as hemicellulose, lignin, and impurities. This extractive element may affect interface bonding strength between the reinforcing fibers and the matrix. On the other hand, interface bonding strength will affect the tensile and bending strength of the overall composite. The stronger interface bonding strength, the higher the tensile and bending strength will be. Treating the fiber surface using alkaline solution (NaOH) can be done as a way to counter the effect of extractive element. Alkaline solution can erode the extractive element which then will increase the interface bonding strength. This research consists of several steps, including literature study, fiber surface treatment processes, tensile test of each fiber strand, fiber morfological and composition test and lastly is the fibers pull out test. The surface treatment processes was done by soaking the fiber in NaOH 5% solution at solution temperature of 50oC, 60oC, and 70oC with time variable of 3, 4, and 5 hours. The fibers was then washed with clean water and dried. For the tensile test, each fiber strands was cut to 15 cm long, and then tested individually. Composition test was done by the Chesson method. Morfological test was done using the optical microscope. The pull out test was done by tensile test machine. This research found that the amount of extractive element can be reduced by using NaOH 5% for fiber surface treatment. The least amount of impurities and lignin, which each consist of only 1% and 4%, is achieved by treatment for 5 hours at 70°C. The most amount of cellulose and the least amount of hemicellulose is achieved by treatment for 4 hours at 70°C, each of them consist of 89% and 5%. The maximum tensile strength, which is 1.744,2 MPa, is achieved by treatment for 4 hours at 70°C. It is also found that surface treatment using NaOH 5% reduced the diameter of fiber strands. The smallest diameter, which is 0,055 mm, is achieved by treatment for 5 hours at 70°C. From the pull out test, treatment for 4 hours at 70°C produced the highest shear strength of 35,5 Mpa.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: kekuatan ikatan interface; NaOH 5%; serat sisal-epoxy; interface bonding strength; NaOH 5%; sisal fiber-epoxy
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics > TL240.5 Composite materials
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP1140 Polymers
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Mechanical Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: MEIDINA FITRIANI TAURES
Date Deposited: 19 Mar 2018 04:48
Last Modified: 19 Mar 2018 04:48
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/50136

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