Uji kinerja unit pengaduk lambat tipe hidraulis

Prakoso, Hendro (2018) Uji kinerja unit pengaduk lambat tipe hidraulis. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

[img]
Preview
Text
03211440000021-Undergraduate_Thesis.pdf - Accepted Version

Download (2MB) | Preview

Abstract

Unit koagulasi dan flokulasi merupakan unit bangunan pengolahan air minum yang sangat penting dalam mengolah air sungai untuk menurunkan kekeruhan yang disebabkan partikel koloid. Terdapat dua tipe pengolahan berdasarkan energi yang digunakan pada umumnya, yaitu menggunakan tenaga mekanis atau hidraulis. Kedua tipe tersebut sudah banyak digunakan di hampir seluruh PDAM yang menggunakan sistem pengolahan konvensional. Dalam penelitian ini telah dirancang sebuah unit koagulasi, flokulasi, dan sedimentasi dengan aliran gravitasi atau tipe hidraulis. Khusus untuk unit flokulasi dibuat dengan rasio ukuran kedalaman yang lebih besar, sehingga luas bak dapat diminimalisir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai headloss dan gradien kecepatan optimum, serta menentukan efisiensi penurunan kekeruhan dan TSS pada unit pengaduk lambat tipe hidraulis. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh debit aliran dan headloss terhadap efisiensi penurunan kekeruhan dan TSS dari sampel air Sungai Jagir pada unit pengaduk lambat tipe hidraulis. Nilai variasi debit aliran yang dipilih adalah 1 L/menit, 2 L/menit, dan 3 L/menit. Luas permukaan lubang yang digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai headloss yang dipilih adalah (0,283 – 0,770 – 1,005) cm2, (0,283 – 0,385 – 1,508) cm2, dan (0,283 – 0,385 – 1,005) cm2. Reaktor yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 1 set reaktor berbahan akrilik sebagai unit pengaduk lambat dan sedimentasi, serta reaktor pipa PVC sebagai unit pengaduk cepat. Pengoperasian reaktor dilakukan dengan aliran kontinyu. Sampel akan dialirkan melalui perpipaan ke dalam reaktor. Running dijalankan hingga volume bak sedimentasi mencapai 180 L yang dilanjutkan dengan proses sedimentasi selama 60 menit. Selama proses koagulasi – flokulasi berlangsung, debit aliran selalu dipantau agar tidak terjadi fluktuasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa debit 2 L/menit dan luas permukaan lubang (0,283 – 0,770 – 1,508) cm2 menghasilkan head loss dan gradien kecepatan yang optimum. Adapun head loss total yang dihasilkan sebesar 97 mm dengan gradien kecepatan sebagai berikut: G1 = 42,8/detik; G2 = 13,7/detik; G3 = 12,50/detik. Efisiensi penyisihan kekeruhan dan TSS yang dihasilkan pada nilai head loss dan gradien kecepatan tersebut masing – masing sebesar 98,5 dan 87,8%. ============================================================================================================ Coagulat ion and flocculation unit is a water treatment unit which is very important in processing river water to decrease turbidity caused by colloid particles. There are two types of processing based on energy used in general, using mechanical or hydraulic power. Both types are a lready widely used in almost Municipal Waterwork in Indonesia that use conventional processing systems. In this study has designed a unit of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation with the flow of gravity or hydraulic type. Especially for the flocculation unit wi ll b e made with a ratio of depth size is g reater then the surface area , so the surface area of the unit can be minimized. This study aims to determine the optimum value of headloss and velocity gradient , also to determine the efficiency removal of turbid ity and total suspended solid (TSS) on the hydraulic type slow mix ing unit. This study examined the effect of flow and headloss discharge on turbidity reduction efficiency and TSS from water samples of Sungai Jagir on hydraulic type slow mix unit . The sele cted flow rate variations are 1 L/min, 2 L/min, and 3 L/ min. The cross - section area of the perforated hole used to determine th e selected headloss value are (0,283 – 0,770 – 1, 005) cm 2 , (0,283 – 0,385 – 1,5 08) cm 2 , and (0 , 283 – 0 , 385 – 1 , 005) cm 2 . The reactor used in this research is 1 set of acrylic reactor as slow mixing and sedimentation unit, and PVC pipe reactor as flash mixing unit . The operation of the reactor is carried out with continuous flow. The sample will be piped through the piping into the reactor. Running is run until the volume of sedimentation unit reaches 180 L followed by sedimentation process for 60 minutes. During the coagulation process - flocculation takes place, flow discharge is always monitored to avoid fluctuations. iv The results showed that the discharge of 2 L / min and hole surface area of (0.283 - 0. 770 - 1.508 ) cm 2 resulted in opti mum head loss and gradient velocity . The total head loss generated by 97 mm with the speed gradient as follows : G1 = 51,89 sec - 1 ; G2 = 15,1 2 sec - 1 ; G3 = 11,50 sec - 1 . The efficiency of turbidity removal and TSS generated at head loss and gradient speed were 98,5 % and 87,8 % respectively.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSL 628.161 Pra u 3100018075946
Uncontrolled Keywords: flocculation, headloss, total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, velocity gradient, flokulasi, gradien kecepatan, kekeruhan
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD259.2 Drinking water. Water quality
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD375 Turbidity--Measurement.
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD433 Water treatment plants
Divisions: Faculty of Civil, Environmental, and Geo Engineering > Environmental Engineering > 25201-(S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Hendro Prakoso
Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2018 08:23
Last Modified: 08 Oct 2020 07:47
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/53213

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item