Perencanaan Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) Komunal Air Limbah Batik dari Industri Kecil Menengah di Kota Pekalongan

Almira, Velda Rifka (2018) Perencanaan Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) Komunal Air Limbah Batik dari Industri Kecil Menengah di Kota Pekalongan. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Limbah batik dikenal sebagai limbah yang tidak ramah lingkungan, karena tingginya kandungan beberapa parameter seperti Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), fenol, dan logam berat. Apabila limbah batik dibuang ke lingkungan tanpa melalui pengelolaan terlebih dahulu, maka akan dapat merusak lingkungan. Seperti contoh yaitu menurunkan populasi biota dalam badan air yang digunakan sebagai titik pembuangan. Kota Pekalongan dikenal dengan nama “Kota Batik” karena mayoritas penduduknya memperoleh sumber mata pencaharian dengan mendirikan usaha batik (IKM). Namun terdapat cukup banyak sentra IKM (Industri Kecil Menengah) batik di Kota Pekalongan yang belum memiliki pengolahan untuk limbah batik yang dihasilkan. Di sisi lain, kepadatan kota Pekalongan menyebabkan sedikitnya lahan yang masih tersedia untuk mendirikan suatu bangunan, sedangkan limbah batik tersebut memerlukan pengolahan lebih lanjut. Maka dari itu, diperlukan sistem pengelolaan limbah batik secara komunal (yang dilengkapi dengan biaya dibutuhkan), agar pengelolaan bersifat efektif dan efisien. Opsi pengelolaan yang cocok dengan kondisi yang ada adalah pengolahan secara fisik-kimia lalu diikuti dengan biologis. Opsi ini diperkirakan sesuai dengan karakteristik limbah serta kondisi lahan, karena berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, proses fisik-kimia dengan cara koagulasi - flokulasi lalu diikuti dengan proses biologi dengan menggunakan wetland efektif dalam menurunkan parameter pencemar yang ada. Selain itu opsi ini juga didukung oleh lahan yang tersedia pada lokasi perencanaan. Pada perencanaan ini pengumpulan data terdiri dari data primer maupun sekunder diperoleh melalui survei lapangan, sampling maupun dari laporan. Data-data yang telah dikumpulkan diolah dan dibahas, selanjutnya dilakukan perencanaan IPAL komunal berupa penyusunan Detail Engineering Design (DED). Perhitungan DED dilakukan untuk sistem penyaluran air limbah (SPAL) dan instalasi pengolahan air limbah (IPAL), mencakup perhitungan dimensi dan aspek hidrolika. Berdasarkan perhitungan Detail Engineering Design, diperoleh hasil berupa dimensi untuk SPAL yaitu diameter pipa yang digunakan adalah Ø 110 mm dan 140 mm, sedangkan dimensi bangunan IPAL antara lain : holding tank sebesar (4,8 m x 4,8 m x 1,5 m); bak terjunan pengaduk cepat (0,97 m x 1 m x 0,5 m); bak lintasan pengaduk cepat (1 m x 1 m x 0,5 m); bak pembubuh koagulan (0,707 m x 0,707 m x 0,5 m); bak pengaduk lambat (4 m x 1,71 m x 0,8 m); sedimentasi 2 (11 m x 4,75 m x 0,82 m); wetland (12 m x 8 m x 2 m); dan sludge drying bed (1,94 m x 0,97 m x 1,1 m). RAB dari IPAL komunal yang telah didesain sendiri diperoleh sebesar Rp. 443.019.362,00. ============================================================================================= Batik wastewater is a type of industrial wastewater which often known and considered as “ not environmentally friendly”, because of the high pollutant concentration contained in the wastewater, such as COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), phenol, and heavy metals. If the untreated batik wastewater is disposed to the environment, it could cause harm to the environment. As example, lowering the biota population in the waterbody where the wastewater disposed to. Pekalongan city is famously known as “The City of Batik”, because the majority of people in Pekalongan earn their income by building small-scale batik industries. However, there are still a lot of batik small industries in Pekalongan which did not have their own wastewater treatment. On the other side, the population density in Pekalongan causing the small area available to built a plant, meanwhile the batik wastewater requires to be further treated. Therefore, a decentralized system for batik industries wastewater treatment (which equipped by the budgeted costs) is needed to make the treatment more efficient and effective. The treatment option that were expected to match the existing conditions are chemical treatment or physical treatment. Then it is proven that this option matched the characteristics of batik wastewater, and the conditions of land availability, because based on the laboratory experiment done the physico-chemical treatment by coagulation – flocculation followed by biological process (wetland) is effective in removing the existing pollutants. On the other side, this option is also supported by the land availability on Pasirsari. In this planning, the required data consisted of primary data and secondary data, which were obtained through field survey, sampling, and previous design. The data which had been collected later be processed and discussed, and then used as the reference in designing the decentralized wastewater treatment plant, where will be in form of detailed engineering design (DED). The DED calculation is done by designing the sewerage system and the treatment plant, that including the dimensional calculation and hydraulic aspects. Based on the calculation, the result of WWTP dimension is holding tank as big as (4,8 m x 4,8 m x 1,5 m); coagulation hydraulic waterfall as big as (0,97 m x 1 m x 0,5 m); hydraulic rapid mixer (1 m x 1 m x 0,5 m); dosing system (0,707 m x 0,707 m x 0,5 m); slow mixer (4 m x 1,71 m x 0,8 m); secondary settling (11 m x 4,75 m x 0,82 m); wetland (12 m x 8 m x 2 m); and sludge drying bed (1,94 m x 0,97 m x 1,1 m) The total cost for building the decentralized system of WWTP is Rp. 443.019.362,00.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSL 628.3 Alm P
Uncontrolled Keywords: Batik wastewater, decentralized, DED, sewerage system, small industries, WWTP
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD646 Sewage--Purification
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD767.7 Sewage sludge treatment and disposal
Divisions: Faculty of Civil, Environmental, and Geo Engineering > Environmental Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Velda Rifka Almira
Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2018 10:06
Last Modified: 18 Dec 2018 10:07
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/53309

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