Studi Numerik Mechanical Coupler Head Light Rail Transit (LRT) Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

Kalista, Betti Mawar (2018) Studi Numerik Mechanical Coupler Head Light Rail Transit (LRT) Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

LRT (Light Rail Transit) merupakan salah satu jenis kereta api penumpang urban dengan konstruksi ringan dan beroperasi di atas permukaan jalan (elevated) dinilai sesuai dengan karakter jalan raya di Indonesia. Dari empat komponen utama LRT, carbody dan coupler telah dibuat dalam negeri. Namun, coupler yang digunakan sebenarnya merupakan coupler untuk kereta api. Padahal coupler kereta api didesain mampu menarik beban hingga 40 ton, sedangkan LRT hanya berbobot maksimal 30 ton. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pengembangan coupler khusus LRT. Penelitian ini merupakan tahapan awal pengembangan coupler LRT, dimana akan dilakukan studi numerik terhadap kekuatan mechanial head coupler (bagian coupler yang saling berkait untuk menyambungkan gerbong LRT) akibat beban statis dan fatik. Pada penelitian ini, model 3D mechanical coupler head dibuat menggunakan perangkat lunak Solidworks 2016 dan dianalisis secara numerik menggunakan metode elemen hingga dengan bantuan perangkat lunak ANSYS Workbench 18.0. Simulasi transient structural dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Simulasi static structural dilakukan untuk dilanjutkan ke analisis modal. Modal analisis sangat diperlukan sebelum analisis transient. Modal analisis diperlukan untuk mengetahui mode dan frekuensi natural yang akan di analisis. Karena ketika frekuensi yang bekerja mendekati frekuensi naturalnya kondisi resonansi viii akan terjadi. Frekuensi inilah yang digunakan untuk analisis transien. Hasil simulasi akan ditampilkan dalam bentuk distribusi tegangan, deformasi, dan siklus hidup dari coupler. Dengan simulasi secara statis, nilai tegangan ekuivalen von mises maksimum terdapat pada saat gaya tekan pada coupler sebesar 368,59 MPa dengan persentase terhadap ultimate tensile strength (823 MPa) sebesar 44,79% dapat dinyatakan aman. Nilai faktor keamanan terkecil terdapat pada pemberian gaya tekan yaitu sebesar N=1,87 yang mana nilai faktor keamanan melebih dari rentang faktor keamanan beban statis yaitu N=1,0-2,0 sehingga dapat dinyatakan aman. Dengan simulasi secara transien, Nilai tegangan ekuivalen von mises maksimum terdapat pada gaya longitudinal dan lateral dengan sudut kemiringan coupler 6⁰ yaitu sebesar 188,42 MPa dengan persentase terhadap ultimate tensile strength (823 MPa) sebesar 22,89% dapat dinyatakan aman. Nilai faktor keamanan terkecil terdapat pada saat pemberian gaya longitudinal dan lateral dengan sudut kemiringan coupler 6⁰ yaitu sebesar N=1,88 yang mana nilai faktor keamanan melebihi rentang faktor keamanan beban dinamis yaitu N=2,0-3,0 sehingga dapat dinyatakan aman. Umur hidup coupler jika diperkirakan sekitar 1e6 siklus. ====================================================================================================== LRT (Light Rail Transit) is one of the urban passenger train with light construction and operated in elevated surface, compatible to road character in Indonesia. Out of four main components of LRT, carbody and coupler made in state. However, couple that is used is made for train. In fact, train coupler can pull weight up to 40 tons, whilst LRT maximum weight is just 30 tons. Therefore, special development for LRT is needed. This research is first step development of LRT coupler, which will be done numerical study to mechanical head coupler (coupler part that connect each LRT carbody) strength caused by static load and fatigue. In this research, 3D model of mechanical coupler head is made using Solidworks 2016 software and numerically analyze using finite element method using ANSYS Workbench 18.0 software. Transient structural simulation is done in this research. Static structural simulation is done to be followed by modal analysis. Modal analysis is needed before doing transient analysis. Modal analysis is needed to find mode and natural frequency that will be analyze. When the frequency is closed to the natural frequency, resonance condition will happen. This frequency then later used to do transient analysis. Simulation result will be x presented in stress distribution, deformation, and life cyle of the coupler. In static simulation, maximum von misses stress value is when compressive force of the coupler is 368,59 MPa with ultimate tensile strength (823 MPa) percentation is 44,79%, is pronounced safe. Smallest safety factor is when compressive force given, which is N=1,87 which still within static safety factor, N=1,0-2,0, is pronounced safe. In transient simulation, maximum von misses stress value is when longitudinal and lateral force with slope angle of 6° is 188,42 MPa with ultimate tensile strength (823 MPa) percentation is 22,89%, is pronounced safe. Smallest safety factor is when longitudinal and lateral force with slope angle of 6° given, which is N=1,88 which more than dinamic load safety factor, N=2,0-3,0, is pronounced safe. Couple life cycle approximately is 1e6 cycles.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSM 625.25 Kal s-1 3100018076823
Uncontrolled Keywords: mechanical couplers head, LRT, EN 12663-1 2010,metode elemen hingga, tegangan von Misses, mechanical couplers head, LRT, EN 12663-1 2010, finite element method, von missed stress
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA347 Finite Element Method
T Technology > TF Railroad engineering and operation > TF270 Railway structures and buildings
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ230 Machine design
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Betti Mawar Kalista
Date Deposited: 03 Nov 2020 08:52
Last Modified: 03 Nov 2020 08:52
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/54859

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