Kombinasi Metode Layer Of Protection Analysis Dan Fault Tree Analysis Berbasis Model Dinamika Proses Plant : Studi Kasus Pada Proses Steam Drum Boiler - Combination Of Layer Of Protection Analysis (LOPA) And Fault Tree Analysis Method With The Basis Of Dynamic Process Plant Model : Case Study On Steam Drum Boiler

Noriyati, Ronny Dwi (2018) Kombinasi Metode Layer Of Protection Analysis Dan Fault Tree Analysis Berbasis Model Dinamika Proses Plant : Studi Kasus Pada Proses Steam Drum Boiler - Combination Of Layer Of Protection Analysis (LOPA) And Fault Tree Analysis Method With The Basis Of Dynamic Process Plant Model : Case Study On Steam Drum Boiler. Doctoral thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Banyak kejadian fatal di dunia industri disebabkan karena “Boiler explosion”. Potensi kejadian seperti ini masih sering terjadi hingga saat ini. Dampak dari kejadian tersebut akan sangat merugikan bagi industri itu sendiri, termasuk manusia, aset, dan lingkungan sekitarnya. Apabila kejadian itu terjadi maka diperlukan waktu cukup lama untuk bisa beroperasi kembali dan diperlukan biaya yang sangat besar. Dalam disertasi ini diusulkan metode baru yang merupakan kombinasi dari dua metode, yaitu Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) dan Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) untuk menganalisis tingkat keandalan pada pengendalian proses Steam Drum Boiler, agar kriteria keandalan pada produksi saturated steam tetap bisa terjaga kualitasnya dengan berbasis pada model dinamika proses. Dengan studi kasus pada Steam Drum Boiler, dimana steam yang dihasilkan dengan laju aliran 95,2 m3/h, pressure 36,5 kg/cm2, dan temperature 405oC, Steam yang dihasilkan adalah High Pressure Steam dan Low Pressure Steam. Untuk High Pressure Steam dengan tekanan 35 kg/cm2 dan temperatur 400oC digunakan sebagai penggerak turbin TP-6101 (8,5MW-5KV) dan TP-6102 (11,5 MV-5KV). Sedangkan Low Pressure Steam, dengan pressure 10 kg/cm2 temperature 270oC , steam ini untuk keperluan Sulfuric Acid Plant digunakan pada steam heater untuk pencairan belerang dan steam jacket. Phosphoric Acid Plant Steam digunakan untuk steam heater, steam ejector dan evaporator. Kemudian steam juga digunakan pada Cement Retarder Plant untuk membantu proses filter purified gypsum dan granulator Cement Retarder, Alluminium Fluoride Plant steam digunakan untuk crystallizer dan washing cloth centrifuge SiO2, dan unit Ammonium Sulfide Plant Steam digunakan untuk steam heater, steam ejector, dan evaporator di Pabrik III PT Petrokimia Gresik. Sehingga, keberadaan Steam Drum Boiler B-6203 sangat vital dan memerlukan sistem proteksi yang sangat dapat diandalkan, atau highly reliable. Dengan demikian, untuk menganalisis kegagalan kualitas saturated steam yang diproduksi oleh Steam Drum Boiler tidak cukup hanya dilakukan melalui analisis layer protection pada input, proses dan output Steam Drum Boiler. Namun, harus dilakukan juga melalui analisis pada proses dinamika Steam Drum Boiler, dengan kombinasi metode LOPA dan FTA. Pada pembahasan ini LOPA digunakan untuk menganalisis pada protection layer input Steam Drum Boiler, protection layer pada proses Steam Drum Boiler, dan potection layer pada output Steam Drum Boiler. Dengan menggunakan HAZOP dan P&ID akan didapatkan protection layer yang harus ditingkatkan. Selanjutnya dilakukan Root Cause Analysis melalui analisis terhadap variabel proses Steam Drum Boiler dengan menggunakan metode FTA. Metode FTA yang digunakan pada disertasi ini adalah berbasis model dinamika proses menggunakan persamaan kesetimbangan massa dan kesetimbangan energi pada root causenya. Faktor yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kesetimbangan massa dan kesetimbangan energi ditinjau dari root cause nya adalah laju aliran masuk Steam Drum Boiler (Mass Boiler Feed Water flow rate kg/s) dan laju aliran keluar Steam Drum Boiler (Mass Steam flow rate), pressure dan temperature Steam Drum Boiler. Faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap kesetimbangan massa dan energy tersebut dibuat pemodelan dinamik proses Steam Drum Boiler yang hasil simulasinya dapat merepresentasikan berbagai macam respon dinamik. Dengan kombinasi metode Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) dan metode Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) diperoleh hasil bahwa variabel proses yang berpotensi terjadi kegagalan fatality pada Steam Drum Boiler adalah pressure PI 6220. Diperlukan peningkatan sistem proteksi dari layer 2 ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi dengan voting system. emergency shutdown, dan meningkatkan dari fungsi indikasi menjadi fungsi kontrol dengan PIC- 6220 (Pressure Indicator Control) 35 - 45 bar pada proses Steam Drum Boiler. Dan pada saat terjadi perubahan (gangguan) secara bersamaan proses operasi Steam Drum Boiler tetap berjalan pada kondisi normal operasi tanpa harus melakukan Emergency Shut Down . Dengan ketentuan dari hasil simulasi pada kondisi kritis Steam Drum Boiler diperoleh batasan untuk tekanan pada Steam Drum Boiler 35 - 45 bar, level pada Steam Drum Boiler 0,501 - 0,576 m, Mass Boiler feed water flowrate 14 - 18 kg/s dan mass steam flowrate 10 - 14 kg/s. Sehingga pada kondisi ini 5 Unit produksi yaitu Sulfuric Acid Plant, Phosphoric Acid Plant, Ammonium Sulfide Plant, Cement Retarder Plant dan Alluminium Fluoride Plant dapat dipertahankan tetap beroperasi dengan baik dan tidak perlu harus melakukan Emergency Shut Down untuk mematikan seluruh Unit Produksi yang ada. Dengan demikian, untuk menjaga performance perusahaan pada kondisi yang diharapkan masih bisa dicapai. ============================================================ Most of the fatal accident in industry are caused by boiler explosion. This kind of potential accident. The impact of the accident can give disadvantageous impact for the industry, which includes the human and environment surrounding. If the accident happens, the recovery time needed to make it able to be operated is quite long and also costly. This dissertation proposes combination between two methods, which are Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to analyse level of reliability in process control of Steam Drum Boiler, so that the quality of reliability criteria in saturated steam production can be maintained with the basis of dynamic process model. The case study is taken on steam drum boiler, in which the steam is produced with the flow rate of 95.2 m3/h, pressure of 36.5 kg/cm2, and temperature of 405oC. While the high pressure steam with the pressure of 35 kg/cm2 and temperature of 400oC, is used as turbine driver of TP-6101 (8,5MW-5KV) and TP-6102 (11,5 MV- 5KV). While for low pressure steam, with the pressure of 10 kg/cm2 and temperature of 270oC, is used in steam heater of Sulfuric Acid Plant for sulfur and steam jacket melting. Phosphoric Acid Plant Steam is used for steam heater, steam ejector, and evaporator. Steam is also used in Cement Retarder Plant for helping the process of filter purified gypsum and granulator cement retarder. Aluminium Fluoride Plant steam is used for crystallizer and washing cloth centrifuge SiO2. Ammonium Sulfide Plant Steam unit is used for steam heater, steam ejector, and evaporator in Plant III of PT. Petrokimia Gresik. Therefore, the existence of Steam Drum Boiler B-6203 is very vital and needs reliable or highly reliable protection system. Therefore, analyzing the failure in the quality of saturated steam produced by Steam Drum Boiler cannot only be done by analyzing the function of protection layer in input, process, and output of Steam Drum Boiler. Meanwhile, the analysis also has to be done in dynamic process of Steam Drum Boiler with the combination of LOPA and FTA method. In this study, LOPA method is used for analyzing the protection analysis in input, process, and output of Steam Drum Boiler. By using HAZOP and P&ID, later it will obtain the protection layer that has to be improved After that, Root Cause Analysis is done by analyzing process variable of Steam Drum Boiler by using FTA method. FTA method used in this study is based on dynamic process model using equation of mass and energy balance in the root cause. The most impactful factor to the mass and energy balance according to the root cause is inflow rate of Steam Drum Boiler (Mass Boiler Feed Water flow rate kg/s) and outflow rate of Steam Drum Boiler (Mass Steam flow rate), pressure, and temperature of Steam Drum Boiler. These impactful factors are made in dynamic process model of Steam Drum Boiler, in which the result can represent various dynamic responses. By combining method of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), it obtained result that process variable that is potentially has fatality of failure in Steam Drum Boiler is pressure PI 6220. An increase in protection system from layer 2 to higher level by voting system and emergency shutdown is needed, which can increase from indication function becomes control function with PIC-6220 (Pressure Indicator Control) 35 – 45 bar in Steam Drum Boiler process. When a change (disturbance) occurred at the same time, operation process of Steam Drum Boiler keeps working in normal operation condition without need to do Emergency Shut Down. With the condition obtained from simulation result in critical condition of Steam Drum Boiler, it obtained boundaries in pressure of 35 – 45 bar, level of 0.501 – 0.576 m, Mass Boiler feed water flow rate of 14 – 18 kg/s, and mass steam flow rate of 10 – 14 kg/s. Thus, in this condition, 5 production units which are Sulfuric Acid Plant, Phosphoric Acid Plant, Ammonium Sulfide Plant, Cement Retarder Plant, and Aluminium Fluoride Plant can be maintained to keep operating in a good condition and does not need Emergency Shut Down to turn off all the production units. Therefore, it can maintain the quality of company performance to be in the desired condition.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: RDE Nor k
Uncontrolled Keywords: LOPA, FTA, HAZOP, Steam Drum Boiler, Dinamika Proses, Protection Layer, Root Cause
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General) > T174.5 Technology--Risk assessment.
T Technology > T Technology (General) > T55 Industrial Safety
Divisions: Faculty of Electrical Technology > Electrical Engineering > (S3) PhD Theses
Depositing User: Ronny Dwi Noriyati
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2019 08:02
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2019 08:02
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/58376

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