Biodegradasi Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Pada Tanah Terkontaminasi Batubara Dengan Metode Co-Composting

Sari, Gina Lova (2015) Biodegradasi Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Pada Tanah Terkontaminasi Batubara Dengan Metode Co-Composting. Masters thesis, Institut Technology Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Terkontaminasinya tanah oleh polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dari pertambangan batubara saat ini masih belum menjadi fokus perhatian di Indonesia. Batubara berpotensi mengkontaminasi tanah karena mengandung PAH dalam kadar yang tinggi secara alami dan mampu membentuk polutan intermediate yang sulit didegradasi oleh mikroorganisme. Salah satu teknik bioremediasi yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk menyisihkan kadar PAH-batubara dalam tanah adalah co-composting dengan penambahan sampah organik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan: (a) komposisi optimum tanah terkontaminasi dan sampah organik dalam proses co-composting untuk bioremediasi tanah terkontaminasi PAH-batubara, (b) pengaruh pH tanah dalam proses biodegradasi PAH, (c) pengaruh kondisi aerobik dan anaerobik dalam proses biodegradasi PAH, (d) pertumbuhan bakteri selama proses co-composting. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen selama 98 hari dalam skala laboratorium. Komposisi tanah terkontaminasi PAH dengan sampah organik (T/S) diatur dengan perbandingan 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25, dan 100/0. Selain itu, pH bahan co-composting divariasikan pada kondisi asam (5-5,3) dan netral (6- 7). Proses co-composting dilakukan pada kondisi aerobik dengan laju aerasi 0,5 L/menit dan pada kondisi anaerobik. Analisis PAH dan hasil biodegradasinya dilakukan dengan metode Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometric pada awal dan akhir penelitian. Perhitungan jumlah populasi bakteri menggunakan metode Total Plate Count, pH, dan kadar air diukur setiap 15 hari. Sedangkan suhu selama penelitian diukur setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan proses co-composting tanah terkontaminasi PAH-batubara berjalan baik pada suhu eksperimen 30-31ᴼC dengan kisaran pH 6,5-7,5, dan kadar air 50-60%. Tingkat penyisihan polutan 16 EPA-PAH tertinggi sebesar 59,90% berlangsung pada rasio T/S 50/50 dengan kondisi pH netral dalam proses aerobik. Jumlah bakteri terbanyak pada hari ke-60 yaitu 1,69x1020 CFU/g. Jumlah bakteri yang terus meningkat setelah itu mengindikasikan proses cocomposting masih berlangsung hingga akhir penelitian. =================================================================================================== The contamination of soil by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal mining activities has not become a focus of attention in Indonesia. Coal may contaminate the soil because it naturally contains high concentration of PAHs and other pollutants, which can hardly degraded by microorganisms. One of bioremediation technologies that can be applied for removing of PAHs contaminated soil is co-composting with the addition of organic solid waste. The objectives of this research are to determine: (a) the optimum composition of contaminated soil (CS) and organic solid waste (OSW) in the co-composting process for the bioremediation of the CS, (b) the influence of soil pH to PAHs degradation, (c) the influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions to PAHs degradation, (d) bacterial growth during the co-composting process. This research was conducted in laboratory scale using reactors of 3.5 L capacity for 98 days. The CS/OSW compositions were varied using 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 ratios. The research was conducted in acidic (pH of 5- 5.3) and neutral (pH of 6-7) conditions. The co-composting process was run in aerobic condition with air supply of 0.5 L/min, and in anaerobic condition. The concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs were analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometric method in the beginning and at the end of the co-composting process. The total number of bacteria, which was measured using Total Plate Count method every 15 days, together with the measurement of moisture content and pH. Temperature during this research was measured every day. The results showed that the co-composting of PAHs contaminated soil worked well in the temperature range of 30-31°C, pH values of 6.5-7.5 and optimum moisture content of 50-60%. The highest removal efficiency (59.90%) of 16 EPA-PAHs occurred in the CS/OSW ratio of 50/50 in the aerobic process at neutral pH condition. The highest bacteria count of 1.69x1020 CFU/g was observed in 60th day. The increasing growth of bacteria afterwards indicated that the composting process was still working until the end of the experiment.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: RTL 620.112 23 Sar b
Uncontrolled Keywords: batubara, biodegradasi, co-composting, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD789 Refuse and refuse disposal
Divisions: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning > Environment Engineering > (S2) Master Theses
Depositing User: Mr. Tondo Indra Nyata
Date Deposited: 21 Aug 2018 03:57
Last Modified: 21 Aug 2018 03:57
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/59429

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