Model Pengukuran Eco-Efficiency Produksi-Konsumsi Pada Ketahanan Pangan Dengan Pendekatan Sistem Dinamik

Findiastuti, Weny (2018) Model Pengukuran Eco-Efficiency Produksi-Konsumsi Pada Ketahanan Pangan Dengan Pendekatan Sistem Dinamik. Doctoral thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Seiring dengan semakin meningkatnya pendapatan individu maupun negara, tingkat konsumsi juga makin meningkat beserta dampak lingkungan yang ditimbulkan. Namun, pemikiran atas sustainabilitas masih didominasi pada sisi produksi. Begitu juga dengan penilaian performansi sustainability yang juga masih terfokus pada sisi produksi yang tentunya hanya akan dapat memberikan status dan pertimbangan-pertimbangan sustainability di sisi produksi saja. Sebuah penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa sisi produksi dan konsumsi tidak dapat dipisahkan satu sama lain, perlu adanya status dan pertimbangan-pertimbangan produksi dan konsumsi secara sistemik yang dapat mengekspos hubungan antar produksi-konsumsi untuk dapat menyusun strategi yang mengarah pada sustainable production and consumption. Eco-efficiency merupakan salah satu sustainability measurement tool yang banyak diterapkan pada banyak perusahaan karena mengukur performansi lingkungan sekaligus performansi ekonomi dalam satu indeks. Sayangnya tool ini juga cenderung terfokus pada sisi produksi. Satu penelitian eco-efficiency telah mengarah pada sustainable consumption, namun belum mampu menganalisa produksi dan konsumsi secara sistemik. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sistem dinamik, penelitian ini menganalisa produksi-konsumsi secara sistemik dan mengembangkan sebuah model pengukuran eco-efficiency produksi-konsumsi pada ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan. Dimana pada penerapannya, satu tantangan penerapan ecoeffciency di lingkup makro atau nasional mengharuskan diikutsertakannya indikator-indikator sosial yang selalu menjadi pertimbangan utama dalam setiap keputusan di lingkup pemerintahan. Selain itu, kompleksitas antar indikator di lingkup makro tidak mungkin untuk diabaikan begitu saja dengan menganggap bahwa tiap indikator adalah independent. Beberapa penelitian eco-efficiency di lingkup makro belum menyertakan indikator sosial dalam perhitungan indeksnya dan mengasumsikan bahwa tiap indikator yang digunakan adalah independent. Sebuah model simulasi sistem dinamis dari eco-efficiency produksikonsumsi ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan kemudian dibangun berdasarkan eksplorasi relasi antar indikator-indikator tersebut. Semua indikator-indikator ekonomi, sosial dan lingkungan di sisi produksi dan konsumsi dihubungkan menjadi satu kesatuan sistem simulasi sistem dinamis yang kemudian di running dalam tiga kondisi simulasi, yaitu: Business as Usual (BaU) , Single Scenario, dan Combined Scenarios. Eco-efficiency dihitung berdasarkan rasio indeks ketahanan pangan produksi-konsumsi terhadap nilai emisi produksi dan konsumsi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan sebuah model pengukuran eco-efficiency produksi-konsumsi ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan Indonesia beserta hasil pengukuran dan simulasi 11 skenario kebijakan untuk mendukung penentuan strategi selanjutnya. Model simulasi sistem dinamis dibangun dan dirunning berdasarkan data sekunder indikator ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan Indonesia tahun 2004-2013 dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). Model kemudian di running selama periode 2004-2025 dan dinilai berdasarkan rasio net cereal terhadap nilai konsumsi relatif (NK ratio) harus lebih dari 1 dan nilai relatif eco-efficiency produksi-konsumsi. Hasil running dalam kondisi BaU menghasilkan nilai NK ratio dengan trend menurun sebesar -1,7% dan nilai relatif eco-efficiency produksi, konsumsi dan produksi-konsumsi yang meningkat dengan trend sebesar 2,6%, 0,65%, dan 1,19%. CLD menunjukkan bahwa kondisi BaU perlu meningkatkan luas lahan irigasi, agri employment dan investment. Kondisi single scenario dihasilkan skenario 5 sebagai skenario kebijakan terbaik dengan peningkatan nilai ecoefficiency produksi-konsumsi sebesar 23,60% dari nilai kondisi BaU. Selanjutnya pada kondisi combined scenario dihasilkan kombinasi skenario 5-8 sebagai kombinasi skenario terbaik dengan rata-rata peningkatan terhadap kondisi BaU sebesar 20,59%. Berdasarkan diskusi hasil running simulasi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pertimbangan CLD dan nilai eco-efficiency produksi-konsumsi mampu memberikan hasil pemilihan kebijakan yang lebih baik untuk ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan Indonesia. ============================================================ As global increasing of individual and state income, the level of consumption also increases along with negative environment impact results.Unfortunately, current research on environmental management is still focused on the production side. Assessment of sustainability performance is also still focused on the production side that will only be able to provide sustainability status and considerations on the production side only. Eco-efficiency is one of the sustainability measurement tools that is widely applied by companies because it measures environmental performance as well as economic performance in one index. However, this tool also tends to focus on the production side. A study concluded that the production and consumption sides cannot be separated each other and need for systemic considerations that can expose the relationship between production-consumption in order to adjust strategies that lead to sustainable production and consumption. Several ecoefficiency studies have led to sustainable consumption, but have not analyzed the production and consumption aspects in systemic approach. By production-consumption in systemic consideration, this research develops an eco-efficiency measurement model on sustainable food security measurement, which this issue has been stated as the most environment vulnerable issue on the production and consumption side. However, measuring eco-efficiency production-consumption for macro or national scope requires the inclusion of social indicators that are the main consideration in every decision within the government. Moreover, complexities between indicators in macro scope cannot be ignored by assuming that all indicators are independent. Some ecoefficiency studies in the macro scope have not included the social indicators in their index calculations and assumed that all indicators used are independent. Answering the research gap, a dynamic system simulation model of ecoefficiency production-consumption of sustainable food security is built on the exploration of relations between these indicators. All economic, social and environmental indicators on the production and consumption side are linked together dynamic system simulation system which is then run in three simulation conditions: Business as Usual (BaU), Single Scenaro, and Combined Scenario. Through Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) there are 6 loops that can be generated which illustrates 6 complexities in the system. The model has been built and run for BPS secondary data of Indonesian Sustainable Food Security data in 2004- 2013. The running has been done for 2004-2025 period and evaluated for NK ratio > 1 and relative value of eco-efficiency production-consumption. The simulation has been done for 3 stages as Business As Usual (BaU), Single Scenario, and Combined Scenario Conditions to measure and simulate appropriate strategies based on the measurement result. This research resulted a measurement model of production-consumption eco-efficiency on Indonesian sustainable food security completed with the measurement result and simulation of 11 policy-scenarios due to the masurement result. The simulation running in BaU condition resulted in NK ratio value > 1 in 2004-2010 and decreasing for -1.7%. Relative eco-efficiency value of production, consumption and production-consumption resulted in increasing trends of 2.6%, 0.65%, and 1.19%. With the complexity analysis, it can be shown that the condition of BaU needs irrigation area, agri employment and investment. The condition of single scenario resulted in scenario 5 as the best policy scenario with the increase of eco-efficiency production-consumption value 23.6% from BaU condition value. Furthermore, in Combined Scenario conditions, a combination of scenario 5-8 was combined as the best scenario combination with an increase in BaU condition by 20.59%. Based on result discussion, it can be concluded that eco-efficiency production-consumption in systemic approach and CLD analysis give better consideration in adjusting strategies than production side mesurement only.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: RDI Fin m
Uncontrolled Keywords: eco-efficiency, produksi-konsumsi, ketahanan pangan, sistem dinamik, eco-efficiency, production-consumption, food security, sistem dynamic.
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD56.25 Industrial efficiency--Measurement. Industrial productivity--Measurement.
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Industrial Engineering > (S3) PhD Theses
Depositing User: ansi aflacha
Date Deposited: 28 Nov 2018 03:33
Last Modified: 28 Nov 2018 03:33
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/60034

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