Ekstraksi senyawa fitokimia dari daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & pav) menggunakan air subkritis

Fitri, Lailatul and Wiratama, Yunila Refit (2015) Ekstraksi senyawa fitokimia dari daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & pav) menggunakan air subkritis. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Sirih merah telah digunakan oleh masyarakat Indonesia sejak zaman dahulu untuk mengobati berbagai macam penyakit. Daun sirih merah dilaporkan memiliki aktivitas farmakologis sebagai anti jamur, anti-inflamasi, antibakteri, antidiabetis, antiatherosklerosis, antitrombogenis, antiviral dan lain-lain (Tapas dkk., 2008). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh suhu dan waktu pemanasan terhadap yield dan kandungan senyawa fitokimia dari daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz &Pav) dan pengaruh suhu dan waktu terhadap kemampuan antioksidan dari ekstrak daun sirih merah. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada suhu subkritis air (<374°C) dengan pelarut berupa air murni. Pada dasarnya air bersifat polar namun, dengan adanya pemanasan akan menurunkan kepolaran air dan meningkatkan kelarutan dalam air. Ekstraksi dengan air subkritis tidak membutuhkan waktu yang lama dan ramah lingkungan. Dengan kelebihan-kelebihan ini, ekstraksi air subkritis diharapkan dapat menjadi metode alternatif untuk mengekstraksi kandungan senyawa fitokimia dari daun sirih merah. Variabel tetap dalam penelitian ini adalah massa bahan (3 gram) dan volume pelarut (18 ml). Variabel berubah pada penelitian ini yaitu suhu reaksi 100;150; 200; 250; 300°C dan waktu reaksi 5;10;15;20;25 menit. Daun sirih merah dihaluskan kemudian ditimbang dan dimasukkan ke dalam reactor dengan ditambahkan aquades. Selanjutnya reaktor dimasukkan kedalam furnace yang telah diatur temperaturnya sesuai dengan variabel. Ditunggu sampai 20 menit dengan asumsi suhu reaktor sama dengan suhu furnace, kemudian dilanjutkan waktu ekstraksi sesuai dengan variable. Larutan hasil ekstraksi dioven pada suhu 100°C untuk memisahkan ekstrak dari pelarutnya. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa yield tertinggi diperoleh pada suhu 200°C saat waktu 20 menit yaitu sebesar 9,13 ± 0,707%. Kadar flavonoid tertinggi diperoleh pada suhu 200°C saat waktu 15 menit yaitu sebesar 282,8057 mg flavonoid/g daun sirih merah. Yield ekstrak daun sirih merah meningkat pada suhu 100 - 250°C dan menurun pada suhu 300°C , serta meningkat saat waktu 5 – 20 menit lalu mengalami penurunan saat waktu 25 menit. Kadar flavonoid dari daun sirih merah meningkat saat suhu 100 - 200°C dan menurun saat suhu 250°C, serta meningkat saat waktu 5 – 15 menit lalu mengalami penurunan saat waktu 20 menit. Kondisi terbaik untuk melakukan ekstraksi daun sirih merah dengan air subkritis adalah pada suhu 200°C dalam waktu 15-20 menit. Aktivitas antiokasidan tertinggi dari ekstrak daun sirih merah adalah pada suhu 200°C saat waktu 20 menit yaitu 100,443 ± 0,54 mg vitamin C/L dengan nilai IC50 pada suhu 200 °C adalah 6,306 μg/mL. 7. Aktivitas antiokasidan ekstrak daun sirih merah meningkat pada suhu 100 - 200°C dan menurun pada suhu 250°C , serta meningkat saat waktu 5 – 20 menit lalu mengalami penurunan saat waktu 25 menit. ===================================================================================================== Indonesian red betle leaves have been used by Indonesian people since away back to cure various diseases. Indonesian red betle leaves was reported have pharmacological activity as antifungal, anti-inflamatory, antibacteria, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, antitrhombogenic, antiviral etc. (Tapas dkk., 2008). This research aimed to learn the influences of heating temperatures and times toward yield and phytochemical compounds in Indonesian red betle leaves that extracted by subcritical water extraction and the influences of heating temperatures and times toward antioxidants activity of Indonesian red betle leaves extract. The extraction was carried out at subcritical water temperature (<374°C) with water as the solvent. Basically water was polaric but, heating would decrease water polarity and increase solubility in the water. Extraction by subcritical water doesn’t need much time and area friendly. With these superiorities, subcritical water extraction was expected can be an alternative method to extract phytochemical compounds from Indonesian red betle leaves. Constant variables used in this research were material mass (3 grams) and solvent volume (18 ml). The changed variables were heating temperatures of 100;150;200;250;300°C and heating times of 5;10;15;20;25 minutes. Indonesian red betle leaves were crushed into very smal pieces and weighed as many as 3 grams, and pour them into the reactor with adding aquadest. After that, put the reactor into furnace which have been set on the desired temperature. Waiting for 20 minutes with asumed that reactor have same temperature with furnace, then made a time countdown for desired time. The liquid products were heated in the oven at 100°C temperature to evaporate the solvent. From the results of this research can be concluded that the highest yield were gained at 200°C at 20 minutes that is 9,13±0,707%. The highest flavonoid content were gained at 200°C at 15 minutes that is 282,8057 mg flavonoids/g red betle leaves. Extract yield increased at 100 - 250°C and decreased at 300°C, also increased in time of 5 – 20 minutes and then decreased in time of 25 minutes. Flavonoids content of red betle leaves increased at 100 - 200°C and decreased at 250°C, also increased in time of 5 – 15 minutes then decreased in time of 20 minutes. The best condition to doing Indonesian red betle leaves extraction using subcritical water is at 200°C in time of 15-20 minutes. The highest antioxidant activity from Indonesian red betle leaves is at 200°C in 20 minutes heating time that is 100,443 μg vitamin C/L which at 200 °C amount of IC50 = 6,306 μg/mL. Antioxydant activity of Indonesian red betle leaves increased at 100 - 200°C and decreased at 250°C, also increased in time of 5 – 20 minutes then decreased in time of 25 minutes.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSK 660.284 2 Fit e
Uncontrolled Keywords: ekstraksi subkritis, daun sirih merah, senyawa flavonoid, antioksidan ========================================================================================== Subcritical water extraction, Indonesian red betle leaves, flavonoid compounds, antioxidant
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP156 Crystallization. Extraction (Chemistry). Fermentation. Distillation. Emulsions.
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: - Taufiq Rahmanu
Date Deposited: 02 Apr 2019 03:23
Last Modified: 02 Apr 2019 03:23
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/62682

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