PENGARUH JENIS BAHAN DAN PROSES PENGERASAN TERHADAP KEKERASAN DAN KETAHANAN AUS PISAU TEMPA MANUAL

., Balkhaya (2016) PENGARUH JENIS BAHAN DAN PROSES PENGERASAN TERHADAP KEKERASAN DAN KETAHANAN AUS PISAU TEMPA MANUAL. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Komponen pemotong banyak dijumpai pada mesin-mesin pertanian dan pengolahan makanan. Kemampuan komponen pemotong ditentukan oleh kualitas bahan dan metode pembuatan yang digunakan. Komunitas knife making mengenal dua metode pembuatan pisau yang berkulitas yaitu metode damaskus dan pattern welding. Kedua metode tersebut sama dengan metode yang digunakan pende besi tradisional namun berbeda dari segi bahan yang digunakan. Pande besi tradisional memproduksi piasu dengan pengetahuan metalurgi yang terbatas, sehingga pisau-pisau yang dihasilkan berkualitas rendah. Secara teori, kualitas pisau produksi pande besi tradisional dapat ditingkatkan dengan cara pemilihan bahan, proses pembuatan, perlakuan panas serta finishing yang tepat. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengamati pengaruh jenis bahan dan proses pengerasan terhadap kekerasan dan ketahan aus pisau tempa manual. Jenis bahan yang ditempa adalah baja AISI 1050, AISI 4340, baja AISI L-6, dan baja JIS SUP 9. Pembuatan pisau dilakukan dengan cara pemanasan bahan mencapai temperatur berkisar antara 900-950oC kemudian ditempa berulang-ulang secara manual sampai penurunan temperatur berkisar antara 650-675oC. Pemanasan dan penampaan dilakukan beberapa siklus untuk membentuk sebuah pisau. Pengerasan dilakukan dengan cara memanaskan pisau mencapai temperatur austenisasi, kemudian dilakukan pendingin cepat (quenching) dengan menggunakan media pendingin air. Pengujian kekerasan dan pengamatan struktur mikro dilakukan pada permukaan dan penampang pisau sedangkan pengujian keausan dilakukan pada sisi tajam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kekerasan dan ketahanan aus dipengaruhi oleh jenis bahan dan proses perlakuan. Proses pengerasan dapat meningkatkan nilai kekerasan dan menurunkan laju keausan. Kekerasan tertinggi diperoleh pada pisau baja JIS SUP 9 dangan pengerasan menggunakan tungku elektrik adalah sebesar 62 HRC di permukaan dan 60,2 HRC di penampang dan laju keausan terendah sebesar 2,27x10-5 mm3/Nm diperoleh pada pisau baja AISI L-6 dengan pengerasan menggunakan tungku elektrik. Pengamatan struktur mikro pada jenis bahan pisau setelah dikeraskan menunjukkan bahwa pada permukaan dan penampang didominasi oleh struktur martensit dan sedikit austenit sisa. ================================== There are many kinds of cutting devices in machinery and food processing equipment. The quality of the cutting component depends on the material characteristics and its production method. Traditionally, a blacksmith uses manual forging to make a knife. Com monly knives produced by traditional blacksmiths have poor quality, i.e. soft and blunt. There are two common methods to make the traditional blade, i.e. pattern welding and Damascus method. The pattern welding process consists of forge two dissimilar stee ls to have a combined properties of the knife. While the Damascus method forges a single bar of steel with engineered composition. Theoretically knife’s quality which produced by blacksmith can be improved with right material choice, good manufacturing process, and perfect finishing process. In this work, we study the traditional forging method done by the local blacksmith to make a knife from a various composition of the steel. Our goal was to know the process parameter to control the hardness and wear resistance of the blades. Materials used in this work were steels with different chemical compositions, i.e. JIS SUP 9, AISI L6, AISI 1050 and AISI 4340. The forging process was in high - temperature ranges of hot work process using the hammer. The forging temperature was between 650 to 950oC. Hardening process on the sharp side was done with heat up the knife to 800oC then quenching to room temperature. Hardness measurement and metallographic examination were done on the surface side and cross-section of the knife, whereas the wear test conducted on the sharp side. The results showed that the hardness and wear resistance is influenced by the type of material and treatment process. Hardening process can increase the hardness and lower wear rate. The highest hardness obtained on steel blades JIS SUP 9 with hardening using an electric furnace is about to 62 HRC and 60,2 HRC on the surface in cross-section and low wear rate is about 2,27x10-5mm3/Nm obtained on AISI steel blade L-6 with hardening using electric furnaces. Observation of microstructure on knife material is after hardening process showed that on the surface and cross section is dominated by a martensite structure and a bit of retained austenite.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: blacksmith, forging, knife, heat treatment, hardness, wear resistance, pande besi, tempa, pisau, perlakuan panas, kekerasan, ketahanan aus.
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Mechanical Engineering > 21101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: BALKHAYA - -
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2017 08:58
Last Modified: 26 Dec 2018 02:42
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/1150

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