Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) Menggunakan Microwave dengan Katalis Basa Heterogen

Ansori, Ansori and Wibowo, Sasmitha Ayu (2018) Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) Menggunakan Microwave dengan Katalis Basa Heterogen. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Kebutuhan energi di Indonesia semakin meningkat sejalan dengan perkembangan teknologi dan ekonomi, namun sebagian besar energi masih dipenuhi oleh energi tak terbarukan seperti,minyak bumi (41,46%), diikuti oleh batubara (35,81%), dan gas alam (19,36%). Kebutuhan energi yang meningkat tersebut tidak disertai pula dengan kenaikan cadangan energi dan energi tak terbarukan juga menyumbang polusi, sehingga dibutuhkan alternatif energi lain yang dapat diperbarui dan ramah lingkungan, salah satunya biodiesel. Penggunaan microwave sebagai sumber energi pembuatan biodiesel dapat mempercepat waktu reaksi. Sehingga microwave dipandang lebih efisien. Biji yamplung memiliki kandungan minyak sebesar 71,4% berat. Dengan kandungan minyak sebesar ini maka biji nyamplung memiliki potensi yang besar bila digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis dan konsentrasi katalis basa heterogen terhadap densitas, viskositas, dan yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan, mengetahui pengaruh daya microwave terhadap densitas, viskositas dan yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan, mengetahui pengaruh waktu radiasi microwave terhadap densitas, viskositas dan yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan, dan mempelajari dan mengoptimasi proses pembuatan biodiesel menggunakan katalis basa heterogen dengan bantuan radiasi microwave. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan katalis dari kulit telur yang dikalsinasi pada 900°C selama 2,5 jam menggunakan furnace. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan degumming minyak nyamplung mentah dengan asam fosfat 85%, kemudian dilanjutkan proses esterifikasi pada daya 450 W selama 20 menit menggunakan 10% (b/b) asam sulfat pure analys dengan perbandingan mol minyak : metanol (1: 40) hingga kadar FFA minyak nyamplung kurang dari 2%. Proses terakhir adalah transesterifikasi menggunakan perbandingan mol minyak : metanol (1:9) dengan variabel katalis, daya microwave, dan waktu reaksi sesuai dengan yang ditentukan. Variabel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah, jenis katalis yaitu, katalis CaO sintetis, CaCO3 sintetis, CaO dari kulit telur dan CaCO3 dari kulit telur, konsentrasi katalis,1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, dan 5%, daya microwave 150 W, 300 W, 450, dan 600 W, dan waktu reaksi 2, 6, 10, 20, dan 30 menit. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan, didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa jenis katalis, konsentrasi katalis, daya radiasi microwave, dan waktu radiasi microwave mempengaruhi yield, densitas, dan viskositas produk biodiesel. Nilai yield tertinggi pada daya 300 W dengan konsentrasi katalis 1% dan waktu radiasi 10 menit pada CaO komersial adalah 71,07%, dimana viskositasnya sebesar 6,4679 cSt, dan densitasnya sebesar 0,8911 g/ml, dan pada CaO kulit telur adalah 78,92%, dimana viskositasnya sebesar 5,9713 cSt, dan densitasnya sebesar 0,8895 g/ml. Sedangkan pada CaCO3 komersial adalah 53,89%, dimana viskositasnya sebesar 9,0212 cSt, dan densitasnya sebesar 0,9021 g/ml, dan pada CaCO3 kulit telur adalah 65,36%, dimana viskositasnya sebesar 8,1000 cSt, dan densitasnya sebesar 0,9025 g/ml. ===================================================================================================== Energy needs in Indonesia are increasing in line with technological and economic developments, but most of the energy is still fulfilled by non-renewable energy, such as crude oil (41,46%), followed by coal (35,81%), and natural gas (19,36%). Increase of energy demand is not accompanied by an increase in energy reserves and non-renewable energy. In addition it contributes to pollution, so it needs another renewable energy alternative and environmentally friendly, one of which is biodiesel. The use of microwave as the energy source for producing biodiesel can speed up reaction time. So microwave is seen as more efficient. Seed nyamplung content of 71.4% oil weight. With this much oil content, nyamplung seed has a great potential when used as raw materials for making biodiesel. The aim of this research is to know the effect of type and concentration of heterogeneous base catalyst on the density, viscosity, and yield of biodiesel produced, to know the effect of microwave power on density, viscosity and yield of biodiesel produced, to know the effect of microwave radiation time to density, viscosity and yield of biodiesel which is produced, and studies and optimizes the process of making biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalysts with the help of microwave radiation. The study begins with the preparation of a calcined eggshell catalyst at 900 ° C. for 2.5 hours using the furnace. Then followed by degumming crude nyamplung oil using phosphoric acid 85%, followed by esterification process at 450 W for 20 min using 10% (w/w) of pure analys sulfuric acid with mole ratio of oil: methanol (1:40) until nyamplung oil FFA content of less than 2%. The final process is transesterification using ratio mole of oil : methanol (1: 9) with determined variables, such as catalyst , microwave power, and reaction time. The variables used in this study are, the type of catalyst ie, synthetic CaO catalyst, synthetic CaCO3, CaO from egg shell and CaCO3 of egg shell, catalyst concentration, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%, microwave power 150 W, 300 W, 450, and 600 W, and reaction time of 2, 6, 10, 20, and 30 min. From the experiments that have been done, it can be concluded that. From the research that has been done, it can be concluded that the type of catalyst, catalyst concentration, microwave radiation power, and microwave radiation time affect the yield, density, and viscosity of biodiesel product. The highest yield value at 300 W power with 1% of catalyst concentration and 10 minute of radiation time on commercial CaO was 71.07%, where its viscosity is 6.4679 cSt, and its density is 0.8911 g/ml, and in CaO eggshell is 78.92%, where its viscosity is 5.9713 cSt, and its density is 0.8895 g/ml. While the commercial CaCO3 is 53.89%, where its viscosity is 9.0212 cSt, and its density is 0.9021 g/ml, and in CaCO3 eggshell is 65.36%, where its viscosity is 8.1000 cSt, and its density is 0.9025 g/ml.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSK 662.88 Ans p-1
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel, Minyak Nyamplung, Microwave, CaO, CaCO3, dan Kulit Telur
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD501 Catalysis. Catalysts.
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP339 Ethanol as fuel. Biomass energy.
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > 24201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Sasmitha Ayu Wibowo
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2021 22:23
Last Modified: 28 Jan 2021 22:23
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/54263

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