Distribusi Mikroplastik Pada Air, Sedimen, dan Bivalvia di Estuari Wonorejo Surabaya

Firdaus, Muhammad (2019) Distribusi Mikroplastik Pada Air, Sedimen, dan Bivalvia di Estuari Wonorejo Surabaya. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Keterbatasan pengelolaan sampah plastik akan menyebabkan akumulasi di lingkungan. Permasalahan mikroplastik muncul akibat pemecahan sampah plastik di lingkungan melalui proses fisik, kimia dan biologi. Penelitian mikroplastik banyak berkembang di laut lepas, namun berbeda dengan perairan lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui distribusi jenis, bentuk, ukuran dan warna mikroplastik pada berbagai kedalaman, gradasi salinitas, dan Bivalvia di estuari Wonorejo. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel mikroplastik pada permukaan air, setengah kedalaman, sedimen, dan Bivalvia pada 5 lokasi sampling di estuari Wonorejo menggunakan Manta trawl dan Ekman dredge sampler. Masing-masing dua kali pengulangan pada hari yang berbeda. Mikroplastik diekstraksi dari sampel dengan density separation, kemudian dihitung dan dikategorikan sesuai dengan bentuk, ukuran, dan warna di bawah stereomikroskop Sunshine SZM45T-B1. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS10 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Pada permukaan air, bentuk mikroplastik didominasi oleh film (31-68%) dan fragment (28-65%). Pada setengah kedalaman air, bentuk film (51-79%) mendominasi, diiukuti fragment (18-42%). Bentuk fiber (50-83% ) dan film (14-41%) merupakan yang dominan di sedimen. Berdasarkan warnanya, mikroplastik transparan (26-56%) dan biru (22-41%) adalah paling banyak ditemukan di permukaan air. Warna transparan (30%-44%) dan biru (23-34%) juga mendominasi di setengah kedalaman. Sedangkan pada sedimen, persentase terbesar (22-48%) merupakan warna transparan. Berdasarkan ukurannya, Large microplastic particles (LMP) adalah paling dominan ditemukan di permukaan air, setengah kedalaman dan sedimen. LMP ditemukan pada semua titik sampling dengan persentase ≥58%, bahkan mencapai 98% pada sedimen. Jenis mikroplastik polypropylene (PP) paling dominan ditemukan di permukaan air (93-97%) dan setengah kedalaman (51-79%). Pada sedimen, jenis polyester (PES) adalah yang paling banyak ditemukan (50-83%). Mikroplastik dapat ditemukan pada dua spesies Bivalvia, Meretrix meretrix and Anadara granosa. Mikroplastik fiber dan film paling dominan ditemukan, masing-masing 119 partikel fiber (83,80%) dan 19 partikel film (13,38%). Warna hitam ditemukan dengan persentase mencapai 45%. Small microplastic particles merupakan yang paling banyak ditemukan, 88 partikel (61,58%), sedangkan 54 partikel adalah LMP (39,42%). Jenis PES ditemukan dengan persentase paling besar di Bivalvia (84%). ================================================================================================ Limitation in solid waste management could cause plastic waste accumulation in the environment. Microplastic pollution takes place due to a mechanism which is affected by physical, chemical, and biological processes. Many microplastic studies have been developed in the marine, while it is still limited in estuary. The objective of this research was to determine the distribution of type, shape, size and color of microplastics in various depths, salinity gradation, and Bivalvia of Wonorejo estuary. This research was conducted by microplastic sampling in water surface, middle depth, sediment, and Bivalvia. The microplastic sampling was done by using Manta trawl net and Ekman dredge in 5 locations. Sampling in 2 replication was done in different days. Microplastics were extracted from samples by density separation, then counted and categorized according to shape, size, and color under a Sunshine SZM45T-B1 stereomicroscope. Identification was carried out using Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS10 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. In surface water, microplastic shapes were dominated by film (31-68%) and fragment (28-65%) particles. In middle depth of water, microplastic shapes were dominated by film (51-79%) and fragment (18-42%) particles. Accordingly, fiber (50-83%) and film (14-41%) particles were dominant in sediment. Based on distribution of microplastic color, transparent (26-56%) and blue (22-41%) were dominant in surface water. In middle depth, the microplastic colors were also dominated by transparent (30-44%) and blue (23-34%) particles. In sediment, the most dominant microplastic color was transparent (22 to 48%). Based on size, large microplastic particles (LMP) were the most dominant particles found in surface water, middle depth, and sedimen at Wonorejo estuary. From all sites, LMP were ranged from more than 55%, even up to 98% in sediment. In addition, polypropylene (PP) was the most dominant polymer type of microplastics in surface water (93-97%) and middle depth (51-79%). Meanwhile, polyester (PES) was dominant in sediment (50-83%). Furthermore, microplastics were found in two Bivalves species in Wonorejo estuary, Meretrix meretrix and Anadara granosa. Fiber and film microplastic particles, which were dominant in these Bivalves, consisted of 119 fiber (83.80%) and 19 film (13.38%) particles. Microplastic color in Bivalvia was dominated by black particles (45%). Small microplastic particles were found up to 88 particles (61,58%), while those of 54 particles were LMP. PES was found dominant (84%) in Bivalvia.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: RTL 363.739 4 Fir d-1 2019
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bivalvia, depths, distribution, estuary, microplastic, salinity.
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD420 Water pollution
Divisions: Faculty of Civil, Planning, and Geo Engineering (CIVPLAN) > Environmental Engineering > 25101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: Muhammad Firdaus
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2021 18:59
Last Modified: 06 Oct 2021 18:59
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/61302

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