Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Tekanan dan Waktu Injeksi Bahan Bakar Terhadap Karakteristik Semprotan, Unjuk Kerja, dan Emisi Mesin Diesel di 20 C Berbahan Bakar Biodiesel

Mahanggi, Alham Ade Kurniawan (2019) Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Tekanan dan Waktu Injeksi Bahan Bakar Terhadap Karakteristik Semprotan, Unjuk Kerja, dan Emisi Mesin Diesel di 20 C Berbahan Bakar Biodiesel. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Biodiesel sebagai bahan bakar alternatif dapat menggantikan bahan bakar fosil. Namun biodiesel memiliki nilai viskositas, densitas dan angka setana yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan bahan bakar fosil. Peningkatan tekanan injeksi pada injektor merupakan salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah viskositas dan densitas yang tinggi pada biodiesel, serta memajukan atau memundurkan waktu injeksi dapat mengatasi masalah angka setan yang lebih tinggi pada biodiesel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh peningkatan tekanan injeksi dan waktu injeksi bahan bakar terhadap karakteristik semprotan, unjuk kerja serta emisi gas buang mesin diesel. Penelitian dimulai dengan variasi tekanan injeksi yaitu 200, 210, 220, 230 kg/cm2 dengan cara mengatur putaran adjusting screw pada injektor. Setelah mengatur tekanan pada injektor dilakukan uji karakteristik semprotan bahan bakar menggunakan injector tester. Lalu dilakukan uji unjuk kerja dan emisi. Selanjutnya, dilakukan variasi waktu injeksi dengan menambah dan mengurangi ketebalan shim pada pompa injektor bahan bakar dengan tekakan injeksi yang menghasilkan unjuk kerja dan emisi terbaik. Variasi waktu injeksinya adalah 16°, 18°, 20°, dan 22° BTDC. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan dengan meningkatkan tekanan injeksi bahan bakar biodiesel sebesar 230 kg/cm2 dihasilkan karakteristik semprotan bahan bakar lebih baik dari standarnya 200 kg/cm2 dan dihasilkan perbaikan pada panjang penetrasi, sudut semprotan, ukuran diameter rata-rata masing-masing sebesar 30%, 28%, dan 9,78%. Dan juga terjadi perbaikan unjuk kerja dan emisi gas buang yaitu Efisiensi Termal, Specific Fuel Consumption, dan Smoke Opacity dengan nilai masing-masing sebesar 16,99%, 14,15% dan 46,39%. Sedangkan dengan variasi Start Of Injection yaitu memundurkan derajat SOI sebesar 16° didapatkan perbaikan pada Specific Fuel Consumption dan Smoke Opacity masing- masing sebesar 7,55% dan 50,8%, serta Efisiensi Termal sebesar 9,13%. Lalu jika dibandingkan antara hasil tekanan injeksi pada 230 kg/cm2 dan waktu injeksi 16° BTDC menggunakan bahan bakar biodiesel B100 dengan bahan bakar pertadex pada tekanan injeksi 200 kg/cm2 dan waktu injeksi 20° BTDC dihasilkan perbaikan pada emisi gas buang yaitu Smoke Opacity sebesar 78,8% dan penurunan unjuk kerja yaitu Efisiensi Termal, Specific Fuel Consumption, dan AFR dengan besar masing-masing 6,67%, 20,29% dan 15,32% ================================================================================================ Biodiesel as an alternative fuel can replace fossil fuels. However, biodiesel has a higher value of viscosity, density and cetane number to fossil fuels. Increasing the injection pressure on the injector is one solution to overcome the problem of high viscosity and density in biodiesel, as well as advancing or retarding injection timing can overcome the problem of high cetane number in biodiesel. This study aims to determine the effect of increasing injection pressure and injection timing variations on spray characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions diesel engine. The study began with variations in injection pressure namely 200, 210, 220, 230 kg/cm2 by setting the rotation of the injector. After applying pressure to the injector, the fuel spray characteristic test is carried out using an injector tester. Then test the performance and emissions. Furthermore, variations in injection time are carried out by adding and reducing the thickness of the shim to the fuel injection pump with injection pressure which results in the best performance and emissions. Variations in injection times are 16 °, 18 °, 20 °, and 22 ° BTDC. The results of this study were obtained by increasing the pressure of biodiesel fuel injection by 230 kg/cm2 resulting in fuel spray characteristics better than the standard 200 kg/cm2 and resulting improvements in the penetration length, spray angle, the average diameter size of each 30%, 28%, and 9.78%. And performance improvements and exhaust emissions also occur, namely Thermal Efficiency, Specific Fuel Consumption, and Smoke Opacity with values of 16.99%, 14.15%, and 46.39% improved respectively. Whereas with the variation of Start of Injection which is retarding the degree of SOI of 16 °, the improvement of Specific Fuel Consumption and Smoke Opacity is 7.55% and 50.8%, and Thermal Efficiency is 9.13%. Then when compared between the results of injection pressure at 230 kg/cm2 and injection time of 16 ° BTDC using B100 biodiesel fuel with pertadex fuel at injection pressure of 200 kg/cm2 and injection time of 20 ° BTDC, an improvement in exhaust emissions is Smoke Opacity of 78.8% and a decrease in performance, namely Thermal Efficiency, Specific Fuel Consumption, and AFR with a magnitude of 6.67%, 20.29% and 15.32%, respectively. Keyword: Biodiesel, Shim, Fuel Pump, Injection Pressure, Injection Timing

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSM 662.88 Mah s-1 2019
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel, Shim, Pompa Bahan Bakar, Tekanan Injeksi, Waktu Injeksi
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ324.5 Fuel systems
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ785 Internal combustion engines. Spark ignition
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ799 Diesel motor--Electronic control.
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP359.B46 Biodiesel fuels.
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Alham Ade Kurniawan Mahanggi
Date Deposited: 30 Oct 2021 08:16
Last Modified: 30 Oct 2021 08:16
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/61462

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