Analisa Potensi Energi Air pada Kanal PLTA Larona untuk Implementasi Turbin Hidrokinetik

Suntoro, Andi (2019) Analisa Potensi Energi Air pada Kanal PLTA Larona untuk Implementasi Turbin Hidrokinetik. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

PT Vale Indonesia Tbk perusahaan penambangan biji Nikel yang berpusat di Brasil. Lokasi penambangan terdapat di pulau Sulawesi yang telah ditentukan wilayah explorasinya berdasarkan perjanjian Kontrak Karya dengan pemerintah. Dalam proses pengolahan biji Nikel di butuhkan energi yang besar, di dalam tungku peleburannya. Sumber energi sebagian besar dihasilkan dari Pusat Pembangkit Tenaga Air dari tiga danau yang ada di lingkungan operasi. Salah satu PLTA memiliki kanal sepanjang kurang lebih 7 km, untuk memaksimalkan kinerja pembangkit listrik tenaga air di Larona dimanfaatkan potensi aliran pada kanal menuju PLTA melalui konversi turbin hidrokinetik menjadi topik utama penelitian yang akan dilakukan. Jenis turbin akan digunakan dalam kanal Larona adalah vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine (VAHT) dan horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbine (HAHT). Analisa wake, blockage ratio dan fluktuasi yang terjadi, sangat penting diketahui untuk menghilangkan efek yang terjadi pada pengoperasian kanal, tanpa menganggu aliran sistem terhadap pembangkit utama akibat pemasangan turbin. Hasil simulasi menunjukan bahwa nilai kecepatan aliran air berbeda karena dipengaruhi bentuk dari kanal, yakni kanal lurus bagian hulu , dan kanal lurus bagian hilir, serta bentuk belokan kanal. Gangguan terhadap dinding kanal akan terjadi ketika blockage ratio tinggi sehingga mengakibatkan peningkatan kecepatan aliran di dinding kanal dan peningkatan gaya drag pada turbin hidrokinetik. Simulasi dalam penelitian ini menggunakan software Ansys-Fluent dengan data validasi disesuaikan dengan nilai kecepatan sesuai pengukuran, dan dianggap valid ketika selisih yang didapat kurang dari 10%. Nilai power yang dapat di bangkitkan dari energi kanal antara 170 W/m2 - 200 W/m2, hal ini terjadi karena perubahan kecepatan aliran air dalam kanal. Peningkatan level air tertinggi sebesar 0,288m dan hal ini tidak menimbulkan bahaya karena peningkatan ketinggian maksimum yang diizinkan setelah dipasangi turbin adalah 0.34 m. Pemasangan turbin juga akan mengakibatkan wake (olakan) dibelakang turbin. Selain itu mengakibatkan blockage efek yang berpengaruh ke dinding seperti peningkatan kecepatan aliran dan peningkatan tekanan. Pemasangan turbin jenis VAHT mengakibatkan ukuran wake lebih panjang daripada pemasangan jenis turbin HAHT. Selain itu bentuk wake yang dihasilkan juga berbeda kemudian tekanan kearah dinding akibat pemasangan turbin juga meningkat. ================================================================================================ PT Vale Indonesia Tbk, Nickel ore mining company based in Brazil. Mining sites are located on the island of Sulawesi which has been determined for exploration based on the Contract of Work agreement with the government. In the process of processing Nickel ore, a large amount of energy is required for smelting furnace. Most energy generated from the Hydropower Electric Power Plant which connected from three lakes in the location area. One hydroelectric power plant has a canal with the length approximately 7 km, in order to maximize the performance of hydroelectric power plants in Larona, the potential flow in the canal to the hydropower plant. The conversion of hydrokinetic turbines is the main topic of the research to be conducted. The type of turbine will be used in Larona canals are vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine (VAHT) and horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbine (HAHT). Wake analysis, blockage ratio and fluctuations that occured, are very important to know, so eliminate the effects on the canal operation, without disturbing the flow of the system to the main generator, due to the installation of hydrokinetic turbines. The simulation results show that the value of the water flow velocity is different because it is influenced by the shape of the canal, namely the upstream straight channel, and the downstream straight channel, as well as the channel bend shape. Interference with the canal wall will occur when the blockage ratio is high, resulting in increased flow velocities in the canal wall and increased drag forces in hydrokinetic turbines. The simulation in this study uses Ansys-Fluent software with validation data adjusted to the speed value according to measurements, and is considered valid when the difference obtained is less than 10% The value of power that can be generated from canal flow energy is between 170 W / m2 - 200 W / m2, this occurs because of changes in the speed of water flow in the canal. The increase in the highest water level is 0.288m and this does not cause harm because the maximum height increase allowed after the turbine is installed is 0.34 m. Installation of the turbine will also result in a wake behind the turbine. In addition, it causes blockage of effects that affect the wall such as increased flow speed and increased pressure Installation of VAHT type turbines resulted in a longer wake size than the HAHT turbine type installation. Besides that the shape of the wake produced is also different and the pressure towards the wall due to the installation of the turbine also increases.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: RTF 621.406 Sun a-1 2019
Uncontrolled Keywords: karakteristik kanal, potensi hidrokinetik, VAHT, HAHT
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ164 Power plants--Design and construction
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ266 Turbines. Turbomachines (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering > TK1519.S68 Hydroelectric power plants
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Physics Engineering > 30101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: Andi Suntoro
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2022 07:02
Last Modified: 22 Apr 2022 07:02
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/62369

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