Implementasi Risk Management Untuk Penggantian Batu Bara Pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap

Fikri, Luthfi Yulian (2020) Implementasi Risk Management Untuk Penggantian Batu Bara Pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap merupakan tulang punggung kelistrikan Indonesia dengan 27,5 GW unit terpasang, dimana 90% pembangkit berbahan bakar batu bara. Saat ini beberapa PLTU menghadapi masalah ketersediaan pasokan batu bara salah satunya adalah PLTU XYZ. Kontrak pasok batu bara selama 20 tahun akan segera berakhir, tetapi pemasok tidak sanggup memperpanjang kontrak karena kualitas batu bara di pertambangan yang menurun. Meskipun mereka telah mendapatkan 4 kandidat batu bara pengganti, tetapi ketersediaan batu bara yang ada ternyata masih menyisakan beberapa permasalahan bagi perusahaan. Permasalah tersebut yaitu nilai kalori batu bara yang lebih rendah dari nilai kalori desain dari pembangkit listrik yang ada, spesifikasi batu bara yang berubah-ubah terutama komposisi kimia yang dapat mempengaruhi kinerja peralatan pembangkit khususnya untuk proses pembakaran yaitu boiler dan peralatan kontrol emisi, serta peraturan emisi gas buang pembangkit listrik yang semakin ketat dari pemerintah. Untuk mengetahui efek dari penggantian batu bara (coal switching) terhadap peralatan PLTU maka perlu dilakukan risk assessment. Fokus dari risk assessment ini adalah efek masing-masing batu bara terhadap peralatan PLTU yang berhubungan langsung aliran proses pembakaran, mulai dari Boiler, Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) dan Sea Water Flue Gas Desulfurization (SWFGD. Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) digunakan untuk memetakan masalah dan akar permasalah pada masing peralatan. Analisa dan evaluasi Resiko dilakukan menggunakan House of Risk (HOR) sedangkan analisa Net Present Value (NPV) dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi aspek finansial. Analisa NPV dihitung berdasarkan pendapatan karena penghematan biaya batu bara, serta biaya yang diperlukan untuk tidakan mitigasi resiko. Berdasarkan 31 risk events dan 37 risk agents yang diidentifikasi, analisa HOR menunjukkan faktor lingkungan berupa emisi menjadi resiko tertinggi karena kandungan ash yang tinggi pada masing-masing batu bara, sehingga peningkatan peralatan kontrol emisi menjadi prioritas utama. Tiga kandidat batu bara memiliki nilai NPV yang tinggi sehingga patut dipertimbangkan sebagai batu bara pengganti untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan perusahaan. ============================================================== Steam Power Plant is the backbone of electricity sector in Indonesia. Steam Power Plants supply 27.5 GW to the grid, in which 90% of them is coal fired. Today, several Coal Fired Steam Power Plants face a supply problem; One of them is XYZ Coal Fired Steam Power Plant. The 20-year coal supply contract will end soon, but the supplier is unable to extend the contract due to the declining quality of coal in mining. Even if there are four candidates of provider to supply coal, but the available coals from those four companies present several problems for the company. Those problems are the coals offered have lower caloric values than the caloric value designed for the power plant, continuously changing coal chemical properties may damage equipment, especially for firing system in boiler and emission control, and it is the tightening government regulation on power plant emission. It is necessary to make assessment about the effects of coal switching on equipments. The risk assessment focuses on effects of each coal sample on equipment in plant site, especially the equipment closely related to firing process, i.e. boiler, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and Seawater Flue Gas Desulfurization (SWFGD). Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) is employed to map problem and problem root in equipment. Risk analysis and evaluation use House of Risk (HOR), meanwhile Net Present Value (NPV) is used to evaluate financial traits. NPV analysis is calculated based on revenue due to the savings in coal costs as cash in, and the costs required for risk mitigation actions as cash out. Based on 31 risk events and 37 risk agents identified, HOR analysis shows one environmental factor, i.e. emission, becomes the highest risk as each coal has high ash content; hence it is necessary to improve emission control. Three of four candidates show high NPV values suitable for the company to maximize profitability.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Coal Switching; Risk Assessment; Risk Breakdown Structure; House Of Risk; Net Present Value
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General) > T174.5 Technology--Risk assessment.
Divisions: Faculty of Creative Design and Digital Business (CREABIZ)
Depositing User: Luthfi Yulian Fikri
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2020 06:34
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2020 06:34
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/76670

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