Pra Desain Pabrik Garam Industri Dari Garam Rakyat

Putri, Safira Nadila and Satria, Yusril Ihza (2020) Pra Desain Pabrik Garam Industri Dari Garam Rakyat. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Garam merupakan kumpulan senyawa kimia yang komposisi utamanya terdiri dari Natrium Klorida (NaCl) dengan zat-zat pengotor berupa CaSO4, MgSO4, MgCl2, dan lain-lain. Garam dapat diperoleh dengan beberapa cara yaitu penguapan air laut dengan sinar matahari, penambangan batuan garam (rock salt) serta dari sumur air garam (brine). Berdasarkan pemanfaatannya, garam dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu garam konsumsi dan garam industri. Berdasarkan Permenprin no. 84 tahun 2014, kadar NaCl pada garam konsumsi adalah minimal 94%, sedangkan kadar NaCl pada garam industri dibutuhkan kadar yang lebih tinggi tergantung jenis industrinya. Pada industri perminyakan, tekstil, dan penyamakan kulit dibutuhkan kadar NaCl lebih dari 97,5%, pada industri petrokimia dibutuhkan kadar NaCl lebih dari 96%, dan pada industri farmasi dibutuhkan kadar NaCl lebih dari 99,8%. Pra Desain Pabrik Garam Industri dari Garam Rakyat ini direncanakan mulai beroperasi tahun 2024 dengan kapasitas produksi sebesar 119.960 ton/tahun. Lokasi pendirian pabrik ini direncanakan di Kecamatan Kalianget, Kabupaten Sumenep, Madura, Jawa Timur. Kecamatan Kalianget dipilih menjadi lokasi pendirian pabrik karena merupakan kecamatan dengan ketersediaan bahan baku yang tinggi di Jawa Timur yaitu sebesar 67.609,07 ton dengan luas lahan 369,44 Ha. Di Jawa Timur juga banyak perusahaan yang yang membutuhkan garam industri sebagai bahan baku. PT. Kertas Tjiwi Kimia, PT. Garindo Sejahtera Abadi, dan PT. Sumatraco Langgeng Makmur dapat dijadikan sebagai target pasar pabrik ini. Dalam pemenuhan kapasitas tahunan, pabrik akan beroperasi kontinyu 24 jam per hari selama 330 hari. Dengan bahan baku sebesar 17.500 kg/jam dapat dihasilkan produk garam industri sebesar 15.146 kg/jam. Proses produksi garam industri dari garam rakyat dapat diuraikan menjadi 4 tahapan proses. Tahap pertama adalah tahap pre-treatment bahan baku. Garam rakyat dari gudang bahan baku diangkut meggunakan Screw Conveyor I menuju ke Roll Crusher I untuk dilakukan proses size reduction agar ukurannya menjadi lebih kecil dan proses pemecahan inti kristal dari garam rakyat. Lalu, garam rakyat dialirkan ke Screener I dan ditampung di Silo I sebelum dilakukan proses pencucian I. Tahap kedua adalah tahap pencucian dan pemisahan. Pada tahap pencucian, garam dicuci mengunakan larutan brine agar pengotor seperti NaOH, Na2CO3 dan Ca(OH)2 hilang. Proses pencucian dilakukan secara 2 tahap, dimana pencucian I menggunakan Mixer Tank I, sedangkan pecucian II menggunakan Screw Washer. Pada pencucian I, garam rakyat dari Silo I dialirkan ke Mixer Tank I. Selanjutnya, garam rakyat yang telah tercuci dikirimkan ke Screw Washer. Pencucian II ini dimaksudkan untuk menyempurnakan proses pencucian I mengingat garam rakyat yang berasal dari lahan pegaraman hanya berkadar NaCl 80-90 %. Kemudian, garam rakyat hasil pencucian dari Screw Washer dialirkan ke Centrifuge untuk dilakukan proses pemisahan. Pada Centrifuge, garam rakyat dipisahkan antara kristal garam dengan larutannya, dimana kristal garam akan menempel pada dinding Centrifuge, sedangkan larutannya akan keluar dari Centrifuge. Tahap ketiga adalah tahap pengeringan dan pengemasan. Garam dari centrifuge akan dialirkan menuju Rotary Dryer untuk dilakukan proses pengeringan. Proses pengeringan ini bertujuan untuk mengurangi kadar air dalam garam agar kemurnian garam dapat meningkat sesuai dengan standar SNI. Lalu, garam dari Rotary Dryer akan dibawa oleh Screw Conveyor IV menuju Rotary Cooler. Dalam Rotary Cooler dilakukan proses pendinginan agar suhu garam tidak terlalu panas. Kemudian, garam dibawa oleh Screw Conveyor II menuju Roll Crusher II untuk dilakukan proses size reduction agar ukurannya menjadi lebih kecil. Setelah itu, garam disortir pada alat Screener II untuk dipisahkan antara garam yang ukurannya telah sesuai standard dengan garam yang ukurannya tidak sesuai standard. Garam yang ukurannya telah sesuai standard akan ditampung dalam Silo II dan akan langsung menuju proses pengemasan, sedangkan garam yang tidak sesuai standard akan dibawa oleh Screw Conveyor VI menuju Brine Mixer Tank I untuk dijadikan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan brine. Tahap keempat adalah tahap persiapan brine. Pada Brine Mixer Tank I, garam dicampurkan dengan air melalui proses pengadukan menggunakan agitator agar garam larut di dalam air. Kemudian, brine dialirkan menuju Mixer Tank I dan Screw Washer. Selain itu, brine juga diperoleh dari recycle brine dari Mixer Tank I dan Screw Washer yang ditampung dalam Brine Tank I. Kemudian, brine tersebut dialirkan ke Brine Mixer Tank II untuk direaksikan dengan NaOH, Ca(OH)2, dan Na2CO3 agar terbentuk inti endapan dari pengotor dalam brine. Lalu, dilakukanlah pengendapan terhadap campuran brine dan koagulan di dalam Clarifier. Endapan pengotor akan dialirkan ke WWTP, sedangkan brine yang telah bersih akan dialirkan menuju Brine Tank II dan dialirkan menuju Brine Mixer Tank I. Pra Desain Pabrik Garam Industri dari Garam Rakyat ini dirancang sebagai perusahaan yang berbadan hukum Perseroan Terbatas (PT) dengan sistem organisasi garis dan staff. Untuk dapat mendirikan pabrik dengan kapasitas produksi sebesar 119.960 ton/tahun, maka diperlukan total modal investasi sebesar Rp 162.738.758.288 dan total biaya produksi sebesar Rp 201.966.737.137 dengan estimasi hasil penjualan sebesar Rp 269.910.000.000 per tahun. Estimasi umur pabrik ini adalah 10 tahun dengan Internal Rate of Return (IRR) sebesar 26,21 %, Pay Out Time (POT) 4,3 tahun, dan Break Even Point (BEP) sebesar 40 %. ========================================================= Salt was a collection of chemical compounds whose main composition consists of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) with impurities in the form of CaSO4, MgSO4, MgCl2, and others. Salt could be obtained in several ways, namely evaporation of sea water by sunlight, mining rock salt and from salt water wells (brine). Based on its utilization, salt was divided into 2 groups namely consumption salt and industrial salt. Based on Permenprin no. 84 of 2014, NaCl levels in consumption salt were a minimum of 94%, while NaCl levels in industrial salts were needed higher levels depending on the type of industry. In the petroleum, textile and leather tanning industries, NaCl levels of more than 97,5% were required, in the petrochemical industry NaCl levels of more than 96% were required, and in the pharmaceutical industry more than 99,8% NaCl levels were required. The Pre Design Plant of Industrial Salt from Solar Salt was planned to start operating in 2024 with a production capacity of 119.960 tons/year. The location of the establishment of the plant was planned in Kalianget District, Sumenep Regency, Madura, East Java. Kalianget District was chosen as the location of the factory establishment because it was a district with high availability of raw materials in East Java, amounting to 67.609,07 tons with an area of 369,44 Ha. In East Java, there were also many companies that need industrial salt as raw material. PT.Kertas Tjiwi Kimia, PT. Garindo Sejahtera Abadi, and PT. Sumatraco Langgeng Makmur could be used as the target market of this factory. In meeting its annual capacity, the plant will be operated continuously 24 hours per day for 330 days. With raw materials of 17.500 kg/hour could be produced industrial salt products of 15.146 kg/hour. The process of industrial salt production from community salt could be broken down into 4 process steps. The first step was the pre-treatment of raw materials. Solar salt from the raw material warehouse is transported using Screw Conveyor I to Roll Crusher I for a size reduction process so that the size becomes smaller and the process of breaking the crystal core of the solar salt. Then, the solar salt was streamed to Screener I and stored in Silo I before the first washing process. The second step was the washing and separation. In the washing step, the salt was washed using brine solution so that impurities such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and Ca(OH)2 were lost. The washing process was carried out in 2 step, where the fisrt washing step was used a Mixer Tank I and the second washing step was used a Screw Washer. In first washing step, the solar salt from Silo I was streamed to Mixer Tank I. Furthermore, the washed solar salt was sent to the Screw Washer. The second washing step was intended to perfect the fisrt washing step considering that the solar salt content which come from soaking land was only 80-90% NaCl. Then, the washed solar salt from the Screw Washer was streamed to the Centrifuge for the separation process. In Centrifuge, the solar salt was separated between salt crystals and the solution, where salt crystals would stick to the walls of the Centrifuge, while the solution would come out of the Centrifuge. The third step was the drying and packaging. Salt from the centrifuge will be streamed to the Rotary Dryer for drying process. This drying process was aimed to reduce the water content in salt so that the purity of salt could be increase in accordance with SNI standards. Then, the salt from the Rotary Dryer would be carried by the Screw Conveyor IV to the Rotary Cooler. In the Rotary Cooler, the cooling process is carried out so that the salt temperature was not too hot. Then, the salt was carried by Screw Conveyor II to Roll Crusher II for a size reduction process to make it smaller. After that, the salt was sorted on a Screener II device to be separated between salts that have been sized according to standards and salts that were not sized according to standards. Salts whose size is in accordance with the standard would be accommodated in Silo II and would go directly to the packaging process, while salt that was not in accordance with the standard will be carried by Screw Conveyor VI to Brine Mixer Tank I to be used as raw material for making brine. The fourth step is the brine preparation. In Brine Mixer Tank I, salt was mixed with water through a stirring process using an agitator so that the salt dissolves in the water. Then, the brine was flown to the Mixer Tank I and the Screw Washer. In addition, the brine was also obtained from the recycle brine from Mixer Tank I and Screw Washer which was accommodated in Brine Tank I. Then, the brine was streamed to Brine Mixer Tank II to be reacted with NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and Na2CO3 to form a core of sediment from impurity in brine. Then, deposition of the brine and coagulant mixture was carried out in Clarifier. Dirt sediment would be streamed to WWTP, while clean brine would be streamed to Brine Tank II and streamed to Brine Mixer Tank I. The Pre Design Plant of Industrial Salt from Solar Salt was designed as a Limited Liability Company (PT) with a line and staff organization system. To be able to set up a factory with a production capacity of 119.960 tons/year, a total investment capital of Rp Rp 162.738.758.288 and a total production cost of Rp Rp 201.966.737.137 with an estimated sales proceeds of Rp 269.910.000.000 per year. The estimated age of this plant was 10 years with an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 26,21%, Pay Out Time (POT) 4,3 years, and Break Even Point (BEP) of 40%.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Subjects: T Technology > TS Manufactures
T Technology > TS Manufactures > TS176 Manufacturing engineering. Process engineering (Including manufacturing planning, production planning)
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > 24201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Yusril Ihza Satria
Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2020 03:35
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2020 03:35
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/78904

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