Simulasi Pengaruh Bentuk Perforated Plate dengan Variasi Kecepatan Udara Pengering pada Performa Coal Dryer dengan Tipe Fluidized Bed

Rusel, Teofilus Evan (2020) Simulasi Pengaruh Bentuk Perforated Plate dengan Variasi Kecepatan Udara Pengering pada Performa Coal Dryer dengan Tipe Fluidized Bed. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Batubara merupakan bahan bakar fosil yang menjadi sumber energi pembangkitan listrik terbesar di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data dari Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mnineral (ESDM), pada tahun 2018, PLTU Batubara dari berbagai kepemilikan menempati urutan pertama jenis pembangkitan listrik dengan daya bangkitan terbesar di Indonesia dengan total energi bangkitan sebesar 26.410,7 MW atau sebesar 46,74% dari total energi bangkitan seluruh jenis pembangkit di Indonesia. Pada saat ini, terdapat beberapa PLTU Batubara yang memiliki boiler yang didesain untuk menggunakan jenis batubara high rank dalam pengoperasiannya, salah satunya adalah PLTU Ombilin. Sementara itu, berdasarkan buku Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT. PLN (PERSERO) Tahun 2019-2028, total cadangan batubara Indonesia didominasi oleh batubara berjenis low rank. Perubahan penggunaan jenis batubara pada boiler PLTU akan berdampak terhadap diaktifkannya pulverizer redundant. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan sebuah metode untuk meningkatkan kualitas batubara. Salah satu metode yang dapat dilakukan adalah proses pengeringan yang dapat menurunkan moisture content batubara, sehingga terjadi kenaikan nilai LHV pada batubara. Dengan melakukan metode pengeringan batubara, diharapkan dapat meningkatkan reliability dan availability dari PLTU Batubara. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan aplikasi Aspen Plus v10 untuk mensimulasikan fluidized bed dryer sebagai pengering batubara dengan media pengering berupa udara. Selain itu juga dilakukan perhitungan teoritis sebagai pembanding. Terdapat 2 jenis perforated plate yang dibandingkan, yaitu Type A dengan 80 orifice berukuran 10mm dan Type B dengan 325 orifice berukuran 5mm. Kecepatan udara pengeringan pada masukan dryer divariasikan pada 10 m/s, 11 m/s, 12 m/s, 13 m/s dan 14 m/s. Simulasi dilakukan bertahap per menit dengan 15 menit pengeringan setiap variasinya. Beban pengeringan pada tiap variasi sebesar 300 gram dengan ukuran partikel terdistribusi rata dari 3 mm s/d 5 mm. Data yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini adalah moisture content, drying rate, temperatur, serta LHV batubara secara simulasi dan perhitungan teoritis, serta temperatur dan humidity ratio secara simulasi. Penentuan variasi terbaik dilakukan berdasarkan peningkatan LHV batubara tertinggi. Berdasarkan simulasi dan perhitungan teoritis yang telah dilakukan, diketahui bahwa LHV tertinggi dicapai oleh kecepatan udara pengering 14 m/s dengan nilai hasil simulasi sebesar 4125,1 kkal/kg untuk Perforated Plate Type-A dan 4126,3 kkal/kg untuk Perforated Plate Type-B, serta hasil perhitungan teoritis sebesar 4127,8 kkal/kg. Dari penelitian juga diketahui bahwa perbedaan Perforated Plate Type-A dan Type-B tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap performa fluidized bed dryer, walaupun Perforated Plate Type-B memiliki performa yang sedikit lebih baik daripada Type-A pada simulasi dikarenakan persebaran lubang orifice yang lebih merata. ========================================================= Coal is a fossil fuel which is the largest source of energy for electricity generation in Indonesia. Based on data from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM), in 2018, coal-fired power plants from various ownership ranks first in the type of electricity generation with the largest generation power in Indonesia with a total generation energy of 26,410.7 MW or 46.74% of the total energy generation of all types of power plants in Indonesia. At this time, there are several coal-fired power plants that have boilers designed to use high rank coal types in their operations, one of which is the Ombilin Power Plant. Meanwhile, based on the book Rancangan Umum Pengembangan Tenaga Listrik PT. PLN (PERSERO) In 2019-2028, Indonesia's total coal reserves are dominated by low rank coal. Changes in the use of coal types in the PLTU boiler will have an impact on activating the redundant pulverizer. Therefore, we need a method to improve coal quality. One method that can be done is the drying process which can reduce the moisture content of coal, resulting in an increase of the LHV value in coal. By implementing the coal drying method, it is expected to increase the reliability and availability of coal fired power plants. The research was conducted using the Aspen Plus v10 application to simulate a fluidized bed dryer as a coal dryer with a drying medium in the form of air. In addition, theoretical calculations are also carried out as a comparison. There are 2 types of perforated plates being compared, namely Type A with 80 10mm orifices and Type B with 325 5mm orifices. The drying air velocity at the dryer input was varied at 10 m / s, 11 m / s, 12 m / s, 13 m / s and 14 m / s. The simulation is carried out in stages per minute with 15 minutes of drying for each variation. The drying load for each variation is 300 grams with the particle size evenly distributed from 3 mm to 5 mm. The data obtained in this study are moisture content, drying rate, temperature, and coal LHV by simulation and theoretical calculations, as well as temperature and humidity ratio by simulation only. Determination of the best variation is carried out based on the highest increase in LHV coal. Based on the simulation and theoretical calculations that have been done, it is known that the highest LHV is achieved by the drying air velocity of 14 m / s with a simulation result value of 4125.1 kcal / kg for Perforated Plate Type-A and 4126.3 kcal / kg for Perforated Plate Type. -B, as well as the theoretical calculation results of 4127.8 kcal / kg. From the research it is also known that the differences in Perforated Plate Type-A and Type-B do not have a significant effect on the performance of the fluidized bed dryer, even though Perforated Plate Type-B has a slightly better performance than Type-A in the simulation due to the more equally-distributed orifice holes.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Batubara, Fluidized Bed Dryer, Perforated Plate Bed, moisture content, LHV ========================================================= Coal, Fluidized Bed Dryer, Perforated Plate Bed, moisture content, LHV
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ164 Power plants--Design and construction
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ263.5 Boilers (general)
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Teofilus Evan Rusel
Date Deposited: 23 Aug 2020 10:48
Last Modified: 23 Aug 2020 10:48
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/79418

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