Respon Fisioanatomi Dan Perilaku Pada Oreochromis sp. Terhadap Paparan Logam Berat: Studi Literatur

Yulaipi, Sumah (2021) Respon Fisioanatomi Dan Perilaku Pada Oreochromis sp. Terhadap Paparan Logam Berat: Studi Literatur. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Pencemaran logam berat di perairan berasal dari alam dan aktifitas antropogenik seperti timbal (Pb), kadmium (Cd), tembaga (Cu), dan merkuri (Hg) merupakan masalah yang sering terjadi di lingkungan, baik dalam bentuk partikel dan terlarut. Logam berat diperairan bersifat bioakumulatif, biomagnifasi pada jarigan tubuh sehingga pada level tertentu akan bersifat toksik akut maupun kronis. Oreochromis sp. merupakan jenis ikan yang bertahan di habitat tercemar dan berpotensi mengakumulasi logam berat, sehingga sering digunakan sebagai bioindikator pencemaran logam berat di perairan. Logam berat masuk ke dalam jaringan tubuh ikan secara umum melalui sistem respirasi dan pencernaan, kemudian dapat terakumulasi pada jaringan dan memiliki efek negatif seperti gangguan di tingkat seluler, histologi, fisiologis dan perubahan perilaku ikan. Kajian pustaka ini bertujuan mengumpulkan data tingkat toksisitas logam berat (Pb, Cd, Cu, dan Hg) pada Oreochromis sp. dan respon pada level fisiologi, histologi, dan perilaku Oreochromis sp.. Hasil studi literatur menunjukkan bahwa tingkat toksisitas akut (LC50) logam berat dari yang tertinggi ke terendah pada Oreochromis sp. adalah Hg (1.64 mg/L), Cu (58,837-3,53 mg/L), Cd (20,1-16,8 mg/L) dan Pb (313, 232-324,38 mg/L). Tingkat toksisitas logam tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kondisi fisik kimia perairan termasuk salinitas dan keberadaan jenis bakteri tertentu. Respon fisiologi menunjukkan adanya peningkatan stress oksidatif, gangguan sistem saraf, sistem imun, metabolisme glukosa. Gangguan fisiologi juga terjadi pada sistem respirasi dan sistem pencernaan akibat gangguan histologi meliputi kerusakan irreversible (nekrosis) dan reversible di organ hati, insang, gastrointestinal, dan ginjal antara lain edema sel, hiperplasia dan kongesti. Gangguan perilaku yang ditemukan antara lain penurunan aktivitas berenang dan gangguan lokomosi. Berdasarkan studi literature ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa toksisitas logam berat Pb, Cu, Cd, dan Hg bersifat akut maupun kronis yang ditandai dengan gangguan fisiologi, histologi, dan perilaku. Kata kunci: logam berat, Oreochromis sp., histologi, fisiologi, perilaku ======================================================================================================== Heavy metal pollution in waters comes from nature and anthropogenic activities such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and mercury (Hg) are problems that often occur in the environment, both in the form of particles and dissolved. Heavy metals in water are bioaccumulative, biomagnification in the body's tissue so that at certain levels they will be acute and chronic toxic. Oreochromis sp. is a type of fish that survives in polluted habitats and has the potential to accumulate heavy metals, so it is often used as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution in waters. Heavy metals enter the fish body tissues in general through the respiratory and digestive systems, then can accumulate in the tissues and have adverse effects such as disturbances at the cellular level, histology, physiology and changes in fish behavior. This literature review aims to collect data on the toxicity of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Hg) in Oreochromis sp. and responses at the level of physiology, histology, and behavior of Oreochromis sp.. The results of literature studies show that the level of acute toxicity (LC50) of heavy metals from the highest to the lowest in Oreochromis sp. respectively are Hg (1.64 mg / L), Cu (58.837-3.53 mg / L), Cd (20.1-16.8 mg / L) and Pb (313, 232-324.38 mg / L). The level of metal toxicity is influenced by the physical and chemical conditions of the waters including salinity, and the presence of certain types of bacteria. Physiological responses indicate an increase in oxidative stress, nervous system disorders, immune system, glucose metabolism. Physiological disorders also occur in the respiratory and digestive systems due to histological disorders including irreversible (necrosis) and reversible damage to the liver, gills, gastrointestinal organs, and kidneys, including cell edema, hyperplasia and congestion. The behavioral disorders found include decreased swimming activity and locomotion disorders. Based on this literature study, it can be concluded that the toxicity of heavy metals Pb, Cu, Cd, and Hg is acute and chronic, characterized by physiological, histological, and behavioral disorders. Keywords: heavy metal, Oreochromis sp., histology, physiology, behavior

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: logam berat, Oreochromis sp., histologi, fisiologi, perilaku, heavy metal, Oreochromis sp., histology, physiology, behavior
Subjects: Q Science
Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Data Analytics (SCIENTICS) > Biology > 46101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: Sumah Yulaipi
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2021 02:18
Last Modified: 06 Mar 2021 02:18
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/83583

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