Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Penyimpanan Bahan Bakar Campuran Biodiesel Terhadap Sifat Bahan Bakar, Perfoma, Uji Ketahanan, Dan Emisi Mesin Diesel

Panjaitan, Sumihar H. (2021) Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Penyimpanan Bahan Bakar Campuran Biodiesel Terhadap Sifat Bahan Bakar, Perfoma, Uji Ketahanan, Dan Emisi Mesin Diesel. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Kebutuhan energi di Indonesia, khusunya minyak bumi, mengalami peningkatan di berbagai sektor setiap tahunnya. Namun, produksi minyak bumi Indonesia tidak dapat memenuhi tingkat konsumsi sehingga harus dilakukan impor dari negara lain. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk mengembangkan energi baru dan terbarukan, salah satunya dengan biodiesel CPO. Biodiesel memiliki sifat biodegradable dan higroskopis yang mengakibatkan rentan mengalami degradasi seperti perubahan properties dan kemunculan mikroba pada bahan bakar. Perubahan tersebut dapat mempengaruhi unjuk kerja dan emisi dari mesin diesel. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan bakar dexlite (B0), B30 (campuran 30% biodiesel dengan 70% dexlite), dan biodiesel CPO (B100) yang disimpan dalam tangki selama 12 minggu. Pengujian bahan bakar dilakukan pada minggu ke-0, 6, dan 12 meliputi pengujian kontaminan mikroba, pengujian properties, dan pengujian perfoma serta emisi dari bahan bakar. Kemudian dilakukan analisa mengenai pengaruh sifat bahan bakar yang didapatkan terhadap hasil unjuk kerja, emisi, dan kondisi filter setelah dilakukan uji ketahanan pada mesin diesel. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa pertumbuhan kontaminan mikroba pada bahan bakar tidak menunjukkan adanya trend, karena pada beberapa pengujian tidak didapati adanya kontaminan mikroba. Hal ini dikarenakan tangki penyimpanan bahan bakar kemungkinan mengandung racun untuk mikroba. Nilai densitas, viskositas, dan kandungan air terbesar dimiliki oleh bahan bakar B100. Peningkatan nilai densitas pada bahan bakar dexlite, B30, dan B100 secara berurutan sebesar 0.9%, 0.3%, 0.2%. Pada pengujian minggu ke-6 tangki dalam keadaan tertutup rapat dan didapati kandungan air turun sementara nilai kalor naik tetapi tidak signifikan. Pada pengujian minggu ke-12 tangki dapat dimasuki udara dan didapati kandungan air naik sementara nilai kalor turun cukup signifikan. Persentase perubahan kandungan air pada bahan bakar dexlite, B30, dan B100 secara berurutan sebesar 82%, 14%, dan 18%. Pada pengujian perfoma, efisiensi termal dan smoke opacity pengalami penurunan seiring dengan bertambahnya durasi penyimpanan bahan bakar, sementara untuk BSFC mengalami kenaikan. Penurunan efisiensi termal pada bahan bakar dexlite, B30, dan B100 secara berurutan sebesar 14%, 6%, dan 8%. Pengotor pada filter mengalami kenaikan yang cukup tinggi terutama pada penggunaan B100 sejalan dengan pertambahan durasi penyimpanan. Kenaikan pengotor filter pada bahan bakar dexlite, B30, dan B100 secara berurutan sebesar 28%, 47%, dan 107%. ==================================================================================================== Energy demand in Indonesia, especially petroleum, has increased in various sectors every year. However, Indonesia's petroleum production cannot meet the level of consumption, so imports from other countries must be carried out. Various attempts have been made to develop new and renewable energy, one of which is CPO biodiesel. Biodiesel has biodegradable and hygroscopic properties that make it prone to degradation such as changes in properties and the appearance of microbes in fuel. These changes can affect performance and emissions from diesel engines. This study used dexlite (B0), B30 (a mixture of 30% biodiesel with 70% dexlite), and CPO biodiesel (B100) stored in the tank for 12 weeks. Fuel testing was carried out at week 0, 6, and 12 including testing for microbial contaminants, testing for properties, and testing for performance and emissions from fuel. Then an analysis is carried out regarding the effect of the properties of the fuel obtained on the performance, emissions, and filter conditions after the endurance test is carried out on the diesel engine. From the research results, it was found that the growth of microbial contaminants on fuel did not show a trend, because in some tests there were no microbial contaminants. This is because the fuel storage tank may contain toxins for microbes. The largest values for density, viscosity, and water content are owned by B100 fuel. The increase in density values for dexlite, B30, and B100 fuels were 0.9%, 0.3%, 0.2%, respectively. In the 6th week of testing the tank is tightly closed and it is found that the water content has decreased while the heating value has increased but not significantly. In the 12th week of testing the tank was able to enter the air and it was found that the water content increased while the calorific value decreased quite significantly. Percentage change in water content in fuel dexlite, B30, and B100 respectively at 82%, 14%, and 18%. In the performance test, the thermal efficiency and smoke opacity decreased along with the increase in fuel storage duration, meanwhile for BSFC it increased. The reduction in thermal efficiency for dexlite, B30, and B100 fuels is 14%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. The impurity in the filter has increased quite high, especially when using B100, in line with the increase in storage duration. The increase in filter impurity in dexlite, B30, and B100 fuels was 28%, 47%, and 107%, respectively. and B100, respectively, at 14%, 6%, and 8%. The impurity in the filter has increased quite high, especially when using B100, in line with the increase in storage duration. The increase in filter impurity in dexlite, B30, and B100 fuels was 28%, 47%, and 107%, respectively. and B100, respectively, at 14%, 6%, and 8%. The impurity in the filter has increased quite high, especially when using B100, in line with the increase in storage duration. The increase in filter impurity in dexlite, B30, and B100 fuels was 28%, 47%, and 107%, respectively. Keywords: Biodiesel, Microbes, Degradation, Properties, Performance, Emissions

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel, Mikroba, Degradasi, Properties, Perfoma, Emisi
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ799 Diesel motor--Electronic control.
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Sumihar H. Panjaitan
Date Deposited: 09 Mar 2021 10:01
Last Modified: 09 Mar 2021 10:01
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/83987

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