Pra Desain Pabrik Fatty Acid dari Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD)

Asma'i, Raja Tamiang and Putra, Farhan Hadi (2021) Pra Desain Pabrik Fatty Acid dari Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD). Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Indonesia memegang peranan penting sebagai produsen terbesar minyak sawit dunia untuk memenuhi konsumsi dunia. Kelapa sawit juga salah satu komoditas ekspor Indonesia yang cukup penting sebagai penghasil devisa negara selain minyak dan gas mengingat banyak produk turunan yang dapat dibuat dari minyak sawit, seperti minyak goreng, margarin, sabun , kosmetik, industri baja, dan industri farmasi. Bagian utama yang diolah dari kelapa sawit adalah buahnya. Kelapa sawit menghasilkan dua macam minyak, yaitu minyak yang berasal dari daging buah (Crude Palm Oil) dan minyak yang berasal dari inti/biji buah sawit (Palm Kernel Oil). Minyak inti sawit (Palm Kernel Oil) memiliki karakteristik yang sangat berbeda dengan minyak sawit (Crude Palm Oil). Bagian daging buah (Crude Palm Oil) menghasilkan minyak kelapa sawit mentah yang selanjutnya diolah menjadi bahan baku minyak goreng, sedangkan minyak dari biji sawit (Palm Kernel Oil) diolah menjadi bahan baku minyak alkohol dan industri kosmetik. Kelebihan minyak nabati dari sawit adalah harganya murah, rendah kolesterol, dan berkandungan karoten tinggi. Minyak kelapa sawit juga dapat diolah menjadi bahan makanan seperti mentega, bahan tambahan cokelat, bahan baku es krim, pembuatan asam lemak, vanaspati, bahan baku berbagai industri ringan, dan makanan ternak. Sehingga pasar potensial penyerap minyak sawit (CPO) adalah industri fraksinasi/ranifasi (terutama industri minyak goreng), lemak khusus (cocoa butter substitute), margarin/shortening, oleochemical, dan sabun mandi. Selain peluang ekspor yang semakin terbuka, pasar CPO di dalam negeri masih cukup besar. Untuk meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan ekonomi, pemanfaatan hasil perkebunan semakin diperluas. Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) adalah produk samping dari pengolahan minyak kelapa sawit. PFAD berwarna coklat muda saat berbentuk semi-solid pada suhu ruang dan akan mencair menjadi warna coklat ketika dipanaskan. Kandungan dari fatty acid sebagian besar oleh asam lemak bebas (>80%) terdiri dari asam palmitat dan asam oleic sebagai komponen terbanyak. Sebagai negara penghasil minyak nabati terbesar di dunia, Indonesia memiliki peluang sangat besar untuk mengembangkan biodiesel. Salah satunya adalah biodiesel dengan bahan baku PFAD (Palm Fatty Acid Distillate). Setiap tahun, terjadi peningkatan permintaan terhadap PFAD akan tetapi jumlah yang diproduksi cenderung tetap. Jika kondisi ini terus terjadi, maka dikhawatirkan akan terjadi defisit pasokan fatty acid. Bila terjadinya defisit pasokan fatty acid maka dapat diprediksi bahwa terjadinya penurunan produktivitas pabrik dibidang oleokimia.Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pembangunan suatu pabrik fatty acid baru agar dapat mendorong produktivitas dibidang oleokimia sekaligus mendukung program pemerintah dalam membantu devisa negara. Lokasi pendirian pabrik fatty acid direncanakan di Kabupaten Asahan, Sumatera Utara. Penentuan lokasi pendirian pabrik ini didasarkan pada beberapa alasan, yaitu dengan keberadaan bahan baku yaitu Palm Oil dan Palm Kernel Oil dari PT. Bakrie Sumatra Plantations yang berada didalam satu provinsi, tersedianya utilitas yang dapat melancarkan proses berjalannya produksi serta dekat dengan konsumen yang membutuhkan fatty acid sebagai bahan baku untuk produk mereka. Proses produksi Fatty Acid dari Palm Fatty Acid Distillate menggunakan proses distilasi, dimana proses pemisahan masing-masing rantai karbon berdasarkan titik didihnya. Setiap rantai karbon yang memiliki nilai titik didihnya yang rendah maka akan teruapkan terlebih dahulu dibandingkan dengan rantai karbon yang memiliki nilai titik didih tinggi. Selain memisahkan zat yang diinginkan dari bahan baku, proses distilasi juga dapat menghilangkan warna dan bau yang tidak diinginkan. Proses awal pada pabrik ini dimulai dengan pemisahan impurities (air) menggunakan degasser, lalu memisahkan asam palmitat yaitu melalui proses fraksinasi I yang diharapkan produk distilat memiliki kemurnian 97%. Kemudian mendapatkan asam oleat pada proses fraksinasi II yang diharapkan memiliki produk distilat dengan kemurnian 85% serta produk terakhir yaitu asam stearat yang didapatkan menggunakan prinsip pemisahan depitcher dan diharapkan memiliki kemurnian 98%. Dari analisa yang telah dilakukan, dapat ditarik kesimpulan sebagai berikut : Hari Operasi : 330 hari Kapasitas Produksi : 130.000 ton / tahun Bentuk Perusahaan : Perseroan Terbatas (PT) Lokasi Perusahaan : Kabupaten Asahan, Sumatera Utara Masa Konstruksi : 2 tahun Analisa Ekonomi Pembiayaan - Modal Tetap : Rp. 263.603.693.236,00 - Modal Kerja : Rp. 46.518.298.806,00 - Investasi Total : Rp. 310.121.992.042,00 - Biaya Produksi Total : Rp. 1.269.208.171.007,00 Penerimaan - Penjualan per tahun : Rp1.716.274.058.400,00 Analisa Ekonomi - Internal Rate of Return (IRR) : 83% - Payout time : 1,42 tahun - Break Even Point (BEP) : 27,88% Dari analisa yang telah dilakukan, maka pabrik fatty acid ini layak didirikan. ====================================================================================================== Indonesia plays an important role as the world's largest producer of palm oil to meet world consumption. Palm oil is also one of Indonesia's export commodities which is quite important as a source of foreign exchange in addition to oil and gas considering that many derivative products can be made from palm oil, such as cooking oil, margarine, soap, cosmetics, the steel industry, and the pharmaceutical industry. The main part that is processed from oil palm is the fruit. Oil palm produces two kinds of oil, oil derived from the fruit flesh (Crude Palm Oil) and oils derived from the core/fruit seed oil (Palm Kernel Oil). Palm Kernel Oil has very different characteristics from Crude Palm Oil. The part of the fruit pulp (Crude Palm Oil) produces crude palm oil which is then processed into raw materials for cooking oil, while oil from palm kernels (Palm Kernel Oil) is processed into raw materials for alcohol oil and the cosmetics industry. The advantages of vegetable oil from palm oil are that it is cheap, low in cholesterol, and high in carotene. Palm oil can also be processed into food ingredients such as butter, chocolate additives, ice cream raw materials, making fatty acids, vanaspati, raw materials for various light industries, and animal feed. So that the potential market for absorbing palm oil (CPO) is the fractionation/refining industry (especially the cooking oil industry), special fats (cocoa butter substitute), margarine/shortening, oleochemicals, and bath soap. In addition to the increasingly open export opportunities, the domestic CPO market is still quite large. To increase the rate of economic growth, the utilization of plantation products is being expanded. Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is a by-product of palm oil processing. PFAD is light brown when it is semi-solid at room temperature and will melt to a brown color when heated. The content of fatty acids is mostly by free fatty acids (> 80%) consisting of palmitic acid and oleic acid as the largest components. As the largest vegetable oil-producing country in the world, Indonesia has a huge opportunity to develop biodiesel. One of them is biodiesel with PFAD (Palm Fatty Acid Distillate) as raw material. Every year, there is an increase in demand for PFAD but the amount produced tends to remain constant. If this condition continues, there is a concern that there will be a deficit in fatty acid supply. When the supply deficit fatty acid it can be predicted that the decrease in plant productivity in the field of oleochemical. Therefore, requires the construction of new plant fatty acids that can boost productivity in the field of oleochemical while supporting government programs to help foreign countries. The location for the fatty acid plant is planned in Asahan Regency, North Sumatra. The determination of the location for the establishment of this plant is based on several reasons, namely the presence of raw materials, namely Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil from PT. Bakrie Sumatra Plantations, which is located in one province, provides utilities that can streamline the production process and is close to consumers who need fatty acids as raw material for their products. The production process of Fatty Acid from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate uses a distillation process, where the process of separating each carbon chain is based on its boiling point. Each carbon chain that has a low boiling point value will evaporate first compared to the carbon chain which has a high boiling point value. In addition to separating the desired substance from the raw material, the distillation process can remove color and odor are undesirable. The initial process at this plant begins with the separation of impurities (water) using a degasser, then obtaining palmitic acid through the fractionation process I which is expected to have a distillate product of 97% purity. Then separate the oleic acid in the second fractionation process which is expected to have a distillate product with a purity of 85% and the final product, namely stearic acid, which is obtained using the depitcher separation principle and is expected to have a purity of 98%. From the analysis that has been done, the following conclusions can be drawn: Days of Operation: 330 days Production Capacity: 130,000 tons / year Company Form: Limited Company (LTD) Company Location: Asahan Regency, North Sumatra Construction Period: 2 years Economic Analysis Financing - Fixed Capital: Rp. 263,603,693,236.00 - Working Capital: Rp. 46,518,298,806.00 - Total investment: Rp. 310,121,992,042.00 - Total Production Cost: Rp. 1,269,208,171,007.00 Reception - Sales per year: Rp1,716,274,058,400.00 Economic Analysis - Internal Rate of Return (IRR): 83% - Payout time: 1.42 years - Break-Even Point (BEP): 27.88% From the analysis that has been done, this fatty acid plant is feasible to establish.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fractination, Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid Asam oleat, asam palmitat, asam stearat, fraksinasi
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP669 Oils, fats, and waxes
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Chemical Engineering > 24201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Raja Tamiang Asma'i
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2021 07:03
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2021 07:03
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/84028

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