Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Perbedaan Blade Chord Length (C) Terhadap Performansi Dan Kondisi Operasi Yang Optimum Dari Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Tipe Lenz 2 Pada Skala Laboratorium “Studi Kasus Untuk Jumlah Blade (N) = 3 buah; Dengan Blade Chord Length (c) = 140, 160, dan 180 mm dan Blade Span (H) = 400 mm; Pada Kecepatan Aliran Udara 4; 5; dan 6 (m/s)”

Rahman, Luthfi Fathur (2021) Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Perbedaan Blade Chord Length (C) Terhadap Performansi Dan Kondisi Operasi Yang Optimum Dari Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Tipe Lenz 2 Pada Skala Laboratorium “Studi Kasus Untuk Jumlah Blade (N) = 3 buah; Dengan Blade Chord Length (c) = 140, 160, dan 180 mm dan Blade Span (H) = 400 mm; Pada Kecepatan Aliran Udara 4; 5; dan 6 (m/s)”. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Secara global, negara di dunia telah berkomitmen untuk mengurangi emisi penyebab perubahan iklim dari sektor energi, termasuk Indonesia. Indonesia melalui Pemerintah juga telah berkomitmen untuk mencapai pemakaian sebanyak 23% energi terbarukan pada tahun 2025. Namun kondisi yang terjadi saat ini masih kontradiktif dimana pembangkit masih didominasi oleh PLTU. Di lain sisi, Indonesia sebenarnya memiliki solusi yang baik melalui pemanfaatan energi terbarukan. Berdasarkan data yang dikeluarkan Kementrian ESDM, total potensi energi angin sebesar 60.6 GW dengan rata-rata kecepatan angin antara 3 – 6 m/s, namun hanya sekitar 154.3 MW saja yang terealisasikan. Dengan kondisi geografis dan karakteristik kecepatan angin tersebut, pilihan ideal yaitu menggunakan Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) tipe Lenz 2 yang bisa dipakai di pedesaan dengan kebutuhan listrik yang tidak terlalu besar. Mengingat minimnya penelitian terkait turbin tipe ini, maka diperlukan suatu eksperimen dengan menggunakan turbin angin tipe Lenz 2 untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh variasi kecepatan aliran udara (U) dan chord length (C) terhadap performa turbin serta kondisi operasi optimumnya. Penelitian ini menggunakan turbin dengan jumlah blade (N) sebanyak tiga buah dengan tinggi sudu turbin (H) sebesar 400 mm, blade diameter leading edge (d) sebesar 75 mm, dan diameter turbin (D) sebesar 400 mm. Untuk mengetahui performanya lebih jauh, digunakan variasi blade chord length (c) sebesar 140, 160, dan 180 mm. Turbin digerakkan dengan axial fan yang kecepatannya diatur dengan voltage regulator sehingga sesuai dengan variasi kecepatan yaitu 4, 5, dan 6 m/s. Honeycomb ditempatkan didepan axial fan supaya aliran udara yang mengalir menjadi uniform. Kecepatan angin dapat diukur menggunakan anemometer. Nilai torsi dinamis turbin dapat diketahui dengan skema brake dynamometer dengan massa pemberat yang diberikan hingga turbin berhenti berputar. Kemudian tachometer digunakan untuk mengukur putaran turbin angin Lenz 2. Sedangkan untuk pengukuran nilai torsi statis dpaat menggunakan torquemeter. Dari penelitian ini, didapatkan hasil dimana perubahan variasi chord length yang semakin besar dari 140 mm hinga 180 mm dan kecepatan angin yang semakin tinggi terbukti mampu meningkatkan kecepatan putaran maksimum dari turbin. Selain itu, didapatkan kecepatan optimum turbin angin Lenz 2 terdapat pada kecepatan angin 4 m/s untuk variasi chord length (C) sebesar 180 mm dengan nilai Coefficient of Power (CoP) maksimum sebesar 0.06312 pada λ = 0.4172 dan Coefficient of Moment (CM) sebesar 0.19056 pada λ = 0. Kenaikan variasi chord length juga mampu meningkatkan kemampuan self-starting turbin dan didapatkan nilai maksimum Coefficient of Static Torque pada variasi Chord length sebesar 180 mm sebesar 0.18818 pada θ = 180o. ====================================================================================================== Globally, countries around the world have committed to reducing emissions that cause climate change from the energy sector, including Indonesia. Indonesia through the Government has also committed to achieve the use of as much as 23% renewable energy by 2025. However, the current conditions are still contradictory where the power plant is still dominated by coal as its energy source or PLTU. On the other hand, Indonesia actually has an alternative through the use of renewable energy. Based on data released by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the total wind energy potential in Indonesia is 60.6 GW with an average wind speed of 3 – 6 m/s, but only about 154.3 MW has been realized. With these geographical conditions and wind speed characteristics, the ideal choice is to use a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) type Lenz 2 which can be used in rural areas with low electricity requirements. Considering the lack of research related to this type of turbine, an experiment using a Lenz 2 wind turbine is needed to find out more about the effect of variations in air flow velocity (U) and chord length (C) on turbine performance and optimum operating conditions. In this study, three turbine blades (N) were used with a turbine blade height (H) of 400 mm, blade diameter of leading edge (d) of 75 mm, and turbine diameter (D) of 400 mm. To find out the performance further, variations of blade chord length (c) of 140, 160, and 180 mm are used. Furthermore, the turbine is driven by an axial fan whose speed can be adjusted with a voltage regulator. So that it can produces speed variations of 4, 5, and 6 m/s. The honeycomb is placed in front of the axial fan so that the air flow can be uniform. Then, Anemometer can be used to measure wind speed. The dynamic torque value of the turbine can be measured using a brake dynamometer scheme with a given ballast mass until the turbine stops rotating. Then, the tachometer is used to measure the rotation of the Lenz 2 wind turbine. Also, static torque value of the turbine can be measured by torque meter. From this study, it was found that changes in chord length variations that are greater from 140 mm to 180 mm and higher wind speeds are proven to be able to increase the maximum rotation speed of the turbine. In addition, the optimum speed of the Lenz 2 wind turbine is found at a wind speed of 4 m/s for a variation of chord length (C) of 180 mm with a maximum Coefficient of Power value of 0.06312 at = 0.4172 and Coefficient of Moment of 0.19056 at = 0. A longer chord length also increases the turbine's self-starting capability. The maximum value of the Coefficient of Static Torque at the Chord length of 180 mm is 0.18818 at = 180o.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Blade chord length, Coefficient of Moment, Coefficient of Power, Torsi dinamis, Torsi statis, Turbin angin Lenz 2, Dynamic Torque, Lenz 2 Wind Turbine, Static Torque
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics > QC151 Fluid dynamics
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ266 Turbines. Turbomachines (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ808 Renewable energy sources. Energy harvesting.
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ820 Wind power
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ828 Wind turbines
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Luthfi Fathur Rahman
Date Deposited: 08 Aug 2021 08:20
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2021 08:20
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/85085

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