Ekspresi Struktur Dan Tektonika Arsitektur Tradisional Suku Sasak Sebagai Bentuk Adaptasi Hunian Tahan Gempa

Hadi, Lalu Nata Tresna (2021) Ekspresi Struktur Dan Tektonika Arsitektur Tradisional Suku Sasak Sebagai Bentuk Adaptasi Hunian Tahan Gempa. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Gempa di pulau Lombok pada tahun 2018 lalu mengakibatkan kerusakan pada banyak hunian masyarakat, terutama pada bangunan-bangunan yang menggunakan material modern. Namun, pada kejadian tersebut banyak terdapat hunian masyarakat tradisional yang masih bertahan. Salah satu hunian tradisional yang bertahan adalah Bale Bayan, meskipun berada di daerah dengan kerusakan terparah di bagian utara pulau Lombok. Fenomena ini menjadi dorongan untuk mengidentifikasi struktur dan tektonika arsitektur Bale Bayan; mendeskripsikan bagaimana kemampuan struktur dan ekspresi tektonika arsitektur Bale Bayan dalam menahan gempa, yang kemudian dapat merumuskan konsep-konsep hunian tahan gempa yang dapat di adaptasi pada pembangunan hunian di masa depan. Data diperoleh melalui metode observasi lapangan, wawancara, dan studi literatur. Analisis data berdasar intepretasi dari transkrip wawancara dilakukan dalam beberapa tahapan; yaitu reduksi noise data (data terganggu), penyajian data, dan verifikasi data. Pembahasan dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif interpretatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tektonika arsitektur Bale Bayan banyak diperlihatkan dalam bentuk desain yang dipengaruhi oleh pemaknaan dan filosofi hidup masyarakat suku Sasak yang sekaligus juga memberikan nilai estetik. Makna dan filosofi yang mempengaruhi desain Bale Bayan; antara lain rasa hormat, kehati-hatian, dan nilai agama terimplementasi dalam struktur dan tektonika dengan baik. Desain Bale Bayan tersebut terekspresi antara lain melalui proporsi atap-selubung, motif selubung bangunan, dan tanda-tanda hirarki ruang. Dari hasil penelitian juga didapatkan bahwa Bale Bayan tidak secara eksplisit dibangun dengan pendekatan tahan gempa, namun Bale Bayan mampu menahan gempa, karena terbukti memiliki beberapa kemampuan yang sesuai dengan kaidah dan prinsip tahan gempa. Kemampuan-kemampuan tersebut antara lain denah yang sederhana, konstruksi yang kuat dan fleksibel, material yang ringan, dan beberapa hal penting sebagai yang sesuai kaidah. Dari temuan kemampuan tersebut, beberapa konsep hunian tahan gempa dapat dirumuskan antara lain bentuk denah sederhana, konsep minim sekat, pemisahan struktur lantai dan selubung bangunan, penambahan lapisan peredam, bracing pada struktur selubung bangunan, mempertahankan atau menggunakan struktur Inan bale sebagai core bangunan, dan mengurangi beban material yang digunakan. ==================================================================================================== The earthquake on Lombok island in 2018 caused damage to many people's homes, especially buildings that use modern materials. However, in this incident, many traditional community dwellings still survive. One of the surviving traditional dwellings is Bale Bayan, although it is located in the worst-damaged area in the northern part of Lombok island. This phenomenon became the impetus to identify the structure and tectonic architecture of Bale Bayan; describe how the structure and tectonic expression of Bale Bayan architecture can withstand earthquakes, which can then formulate earthquake-resistant housing concepts that can be adapted to future residential development. Data were obtained through field observations, interviews, and literature studies. Data analysis based on the interpretation of the interview transcripts was carried out in several stages; namely data noise reduction (interrupted data), data presentation, and data verification. The discussion is carried out using an interpretive descriptive method. The results showed that the tectonics of the Bale Bayan architecture was mostly shown in the form of designs that were influenced by the meaning and philosophy of life of the Sasak people, which at the same time provided aesthetic value. The meanings and philosophies that influence the design of Bale Bayan; including respect, prudence, and religious values are well implemented in structure and tectonics. The Bale Bayan design is expressed, among others, through the proportions of the roof-shroud, the motif of the building envelope, and the signs of the spatial hierarchy. From the results of the study, it was also found that Bale Bayan was not explicitly built with an earthquake-resistant approach, but Bale Bayan was able to withstand earthquakes because it was proven to have several capabilities that were following the rules and principles of earthquake resistance. These capabilities include simple plans, strong and flexible construction, lightweight materials, and several important things that are following the rules. From the findings of these capabilities, several concepts of earthquake-resistant housing can be formulated, including simple floor plans, minimal bulkhead concepts, separation of floor structures and building envelopes, adding a damper layer, bracing on the building envelope structure, maintaining or using the Inan bale structure as the building's core, and reduce the load of the material used.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Tektonika arsitektur, Bale Bayan, Inan Bale, Tahan gempa, Denah sederhana, Architecture Tectonics, Bale Bayan, Inan Bale, Earthquake Resistant Housing, Simple Floor Plan.
Subjects: N Fine Arts > NA Architecture > NA7115 Domestic architecture. Houses. Dwellings
T Technology > TH Building construction > TH1095 Earthquakes and building
Divisions: Faculty of Civil, Planning, and Geo Engineering (CIVPLAN) > Architecture > 23201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Lalu Nata Tresna Hadi
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2021 09:27
Last Modified: 14 Aug 2021 09:27
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/86621

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