Studi Numerik Pengaruh Variasi Kecepatan dan Berat Objek Diam Terhadap Karakteristik Coupler Gerbong Kereta Semi-Cepat pada Kondisi Tumbukan dengan Objek Diam

Wicaksana, Muhammad Arif Prabha (2021) Studi Numerik Pengaruh Variasi Kecepatan dan Berat Objek Diam Terhadap Karakteristik Coupler Gerbong Kereta Semi-Cepat pada Kondisi Tumbukan dengan Objek Diam. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Kereta api sebagai sarana transportasi massal sudah seharusnya memberikan perlindungan terhadap penumpang ditengah potensi terjadinya kecelakaan kereta api. Kecelakaan kereta api dengan kendaraan lain dalam kondisi diam tercatat rata-rata kasus yang signifikan pada tiga tahun terakhir. Penelitian keselamatan dilakukan untuk mengurangi resiko akibat kecelakaan, dengan menganalisa performa kereta pada saat mengalami kondisi kecelakaan bertumbukan dengan kendaraan lain yang diasumsikan sebagai objek diam. Performa kereta pada kondisi bertumbukan dilakukan penelitian pada coupler kereta. Penelitian coupler dapat menjadi parameter keselamatan kereta dalam menghadapi tumbukan, dikarenakan komponen draft gear pada coupler berfungsi mentransmisikan gaya longitudinal pada saat operasi normal. Draft gear menjadi bagian utama yang terkena dampak pada saat terjadinya kecelakaan tumbukan kereta, sehingga performa dari komponen tersebut berpengaruh signifikan terhadap perilaku respon dinamis kereta pada saat bertumbukan. Karakteristik coupler pada saat terjadinya tumbukan dengan objek diam didapatkan dengan mencari besar gaya yang diterima coupler pada saat terjadinya tumbukan dengan objek diam. Studi Numerik ini dilakukan simulasi tumbukan 3 rangkaian gerbong sesuai dengan spesifikasi kereta semi-cepat Jakarta-Surabaya dengan objek diam menggunakan perangkat lunak Simulink-MATLAB. Simulasi dilakukan dengan variasi kecepatan kereta 60, 80, 100, 120 km/h dan variasi berat objek diam 2, 15, 32 ton dengan jarak antara kereta dengan objek diam 67.4 meter yaitu setengah jarak pengereman kereta dengan kecepatan 60 km/h. Spesifikasi kereta yaitu 3 rangkaian dengan berat 46050, 46500, 42400 kg dengan asumsi kapasitas penumpang penuh, gaya pengereman 150 kN tiap rangkaiannya, konstanta pegas 10.000 kN/m dan gaya damping 10.000 kNs/m. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah coupler memiliki karakter yang dapat meredam tumbukan dibuktikan pada pengujian kecepatan 120 km/h bertumbukan dengan truk 32 ton, nilai gaya coupler maksimum yang terjadi pada saat perbedaan kecepatan terbesar antar rangkaian dan pada saat selisih jarak antar gerbong paling jauh coupler berada dalam kondisi tertekan penuh. Gaya coupler depan selalu lebih besar dibandingkan dengan gaya coupler belakang karena coupler depan menahan 2 gerbong dan coupler belakang menahan 1 gerbong. Pengaruh berat objek diam lebih besar pengaruhnya dibandingkan dengan pengaruh kecepatan terhadap gaya tumbukan, gaya coupler, dan perlambatan kereta. Besar gaya coupler terbesar terjadi pada pengujian kecepatan 120 km/h bertumbukan dengan truk 32 ton sebesar -658 kN yang mengakibatkan perlambatan sebesar 〖-26.8m/s〗^2 atau setara dengan 2.73 G yang tergolong aman untuk manusia tetapi belum mempertimbangkan kondisi didalam kereta. ================================================================================================ Train as a mass transportation service must always ensure the safety standards for its passenger in the midst of potential train crash. In the last 3 years, train crash collision with other type of vehicle recorded in a substantial amount of cases. Studies in train safety aims to reduce the risk due to accident, by analyzing train performance when collides with other vehicle that assumes as a still objects. Train collision safety performance can be determined by analyzing the train’s coupler component. Research on train coupler can be the safety parameter in a train crash, due to train longitudinal shock absorber are transmitted to the coupler’s draft gear component, therefore it became the first and main component to be affected when undergone crash. Draft gear performance gave a significant influence on the characteristics of the train dynamic response in train collision. The coupler’s characteristics in train crash could determined the safety standards in a train crash, by analyzing the value of the force applied on coupler when undergoing a collision with a still objects. Numerical study on the characteristics of train coupler done by simulating a 3-wagon train based on the design specification of the Jakarta-Surabaya Medium-speed Train collides with a still objects using software MATLAB-Simulink r2021a. The simulation is done by testing the train speed variation of 60, 80, 100, 120 km/h and the still object mass variation of 2, 15, 32 tons with the separating distance between train and stil objects are 67.4 meter or equal to half of the 60 km/h braking distance. The train specification is a full capacity 3-wagon train with 46050, 46500, 42400 kg with assumption of 150 kN braking force, 10.000 kNs/m damping force, and 10.000 kN/m spring rate. From the simulation results, it was found that the coupler has a character of damping the impact force that caused by the collision as seen on the testing of 120 km/h collides with a 32 tons truck, the coupler maximum force occurs at the speed of among every wagon reached the maximum speed difference and the travel distance among every wagon reached maximum state, therefore the rear wagon is travelling faster than the middle wagon, and the midlle wagon is faster than the locomotive in this conditions the coupler is experiencing a bottom out conditions. The front coupler will always experience a larger amount of force compares to the rear coupler due to the front coupler resists two wagon behind it, but the rear coupler only hold a wagon behind it. The effects of still objects mass variation had more impact than the speed variation in terms of impact force applied, coupler force, train displacement, and train deceleration. The biggest coupler force of -658 kN happens on the 120 km/h collides with a 32 tons truck testing, with deceleration value of 〖-26.8m/s〗^2 or equivalent with 2.73 G which is rather safe for human, but its doesn’t take other safety parameters into consideration.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Kecelakaan, Kereta Semi-cepat, Coupler, Pengereman darurat, Tumbukan, Objek diam, Accident, Medium-speed Train, Train crash, Stationary objects
Subjects: T Technology > TF Railroad engineering and operation
T Technology > TF Railroad engineering and operation > TF1327.O58 High speed ground transportation (train)
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Muhammad Arif Prabha Wicaksana
Date Deposited: 22 Aug 2021 15:53
Last Modified: 22 Aug 2021 15:53
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/88751

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