Analisa Energi Dan Eksergi Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Dual Fuel Diesel - Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Sekam Padi Dengan Perubahan Air Fuel Ratio Dan Beban Daya

Rabbani, Rifqi Rafii (2021) Analisa Energi Dan Eksergi Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Dual Fuel Diesel - Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Sekam Padi Dengan Perubahan Air Fuel Ratio Dan Beban Daya. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Penggunaan listrik per kapita terus meningkat setiap tahunnya sehingga menyebabkan peningkatan produksi pada pembangkit. Mayoritas pembangkit di Indonesia masih menggunakan bahan bakar fossil sebagai energi utama. Ketersediaan bahan bakar fossil khususnya minyak bumi mulai menipis dan terancam habis jika tidak ditemukannya cadangan baru. Demi mengganti bahan bakar fossil diperlukan energi alternatif yaitu sumber Energi Baru dan Terbarukan (EBT) seperti biomassa. Biomassa merupakan bahan organik padat yang dihasilkan melalui proses fotosintetik. Bahan bakar padat tersebut harus diubah menjadi gas melalui proses gasifikasi dimana didalamnya terjadi dekomposisi biomassa secara termal dengan kondisi oksigen dibawah kesetimbangan stoikiometri. Hasil dari proses gasifikasi biomassa disebut dengan syngas yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pengganti bahan bakar diesel pada mesin diesel dual fuel. Performa mesin diesel dual fuel dapat diketahui dengan melakukan analisa secara termodinamika menggunakan prinsip energi dan eksergi. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan bakar diesel dan syngas hasil gasifikasi sekam padi dengan variasi equivalent ratio 0,3 dan temperatur udara masuk 27oC. Pengujian pada penelitian ini menggunakan generator set diesel dual fuel dengan variasi air fuel ratio 10, 14, 18, 22, dan 26 dengan bantuan blower serta beban daya. Generator set dimodifikasi bagian saluran masuk (intake manifold) sebagai jalur masuk syngas. Syngas dan udara dicampur dengan bantuan mixer sebelum masuk ke ruang bakar dan menggerakan generator. Pengukuran dilakukan selama penelitian ini adalah tegangan dan arus listrik, waktu konsumsi bahan bakar diesel sebanyak 10 ml, temperatur gas buang, dan temperatur blok mesin. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa kondisi dual fuel dengan variasi AFR 14 memiliki unjuk kerja paling optimal. Nilai rata – rata penghematan bahan bakar diesel pada variasi AFR 14 tercapai sebesar 18,95%. Penghematan tersebut mengakibatkan penurunan laju konsumsi diesel dimana pada kondisi dual fuel mengonsumsi diesel hanya sebesar 0,000189 kg/s dibandingkan kondisi single fuel sebesar 0,000231 kg/s. Selain itu, nilai SFC juga turut turun dengan rata – rata nilai kondisi dual fuel sebesar 0,38 kg/kwh daripada kondisi single fuel sebesar 0,46 kg/kwh. Adapun rata – rata efisiensi termal yang dicapai variasi AFR tersebut adalah 14,81% yang mana lebih tinggi dibandingkan variasi AFR lainnya. Berdasarkan prinsip eksergi, penggunaan dual fuel pada mesin diesel memiliki performa yang lebih buruk daripada single fuel. Parameter yang digunakan adalah efisiensi eksergi dimana pada kondisi dual fuel sebesar 5,58% sedangkan kondisi single fuel sebesar 19,12%. ===================================================================================================== The use of electricity per capita were increase every year, impact the production at power plants. Most power plants in Indonesia are using fossil fuels as their main energy. The availability of fossil fuels, especially crude oil, is running low and in danger of being depleted if new reserves are not found. In order to replace fossil fuels, alternative energy is needed, namely New and Renewable Energy (EBT) sources such as biomass. Biomass is a solid material produced through the photosynthetic process. The solid fuel converted into gas through a gasification process in which a thermal decomposition. That occurs when oxygen during combustion below stoichiometric equilibrium. The result of the biomass gasification process is called syngas which can be used as a substitute for diesel fuel. The performance of a dual fuel condition determined by performing a thermodynamic analysis using the principles of energy and exergy. This study uses diesel fuel and syngas results rice husk gasification which is had variations of equivalent ratio 0,3 and inlet temperature 27oC. This study uses a dual fuel diesel generator set with change of air fuel ratio which are 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 using a blower and power load as variations. The generator set was modified at the intake manifold as a syngas way. Syngas and air were mixed at mixer before entering combustion chamber then driving the generator. The measurements made during this study were voltage, electric current, diesel fuel consumption time for each 10 ml, exhaust gas temperature, and engine block temperature. The result of this study indicates that dual fuel condition with variations of AFR 14 reached the most optimal performance. The average value of diesel fuel savings on this variation is 18,95%. These savings resulted lower diesel consumptions in dual fuel condition which consumed 0,000189 kg/s, compared to single fuel condition for 0,000231 kg/s. In addition, the SFC value of dual fuel also decreased which had average value of 0,38 kg/kwh compared to single fuel condition for 0,46 kg/kwh on the average. The average thermal efficiency reached by AFR 14 is 14,81%, still higher than other variations. Based on exergy principle, dual fuel condition had worse performance than single fuel. Exergy efficiency, parameter that evaluate performance, showed that dual fuel conditions had in average of 5,58% efficiency while single fuel condition had in average of 19,12% efficiency.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dual fuel, Biomassa, Syngas, Sekam Padi, AFR, Energi, Eksergi, Biomass, Rice Husk, Energy, Exergy.
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ265.E23 Thermodynamics.
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ324.5 Fuel systems
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ799 Diesel motor--Electronic control.
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Rifqi Rafii Rabbani
Date Deposited: 31 Aug 2021 03:19
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2021 03:19
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/90803

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