Natural And Treated Subsoil on Ngipik Municipal Solid Waste Disposal

Sutra, Nila (2021) Natural And Treated Subsoil on Ngipik Municipal Solid Waste Disposal. Doctoral thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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03111660010009 - Dissertation.pdf
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03111660010009 - Dissertation.pdf
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03111660010009-Dissertation.pdf
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03111660010009-Dissertation.pdf - Accepted Version
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Abstract

Open dumping is the most widely used landfilling method in Indonesia. As the amount of waste increases year by year, an indiscriminate landfill induces an inherited problem, leachate deployment. Leachate deployment is a problem in landfills worldwide and worsens in developing countries, such as Indonesia. Besides, one of the most found contaminants found in landfills is ammonium (NH4+). At Ngipik Landfill, Gresik, ammonium concentration was recorded at 1024 mg/L, even though the Indonesian government limits the maximum concentration to 5 mg/L. The excessive NH4+ leads to eutrophication as the amount of NH4+ interferes with the oxygen binding in water. Several solutions to reduce the contamination are a proper clay liner and wastewater processing. The clay liner should be assessed for its hydraulic conductivity and immobilization ability. For municipal solid waste, the hydraulic conductivity of clay liners should be less than 1.0 x 10-9 m/s, while the hydraulic conductivity of Ngipik Landfill natural soil was much lower at 2.7 x10-12 m/s. However, the surrounding area was found to be contaminated. The soil treated with fly ash-based geopolymer (FAG) was then proposed to reduce contamination in the area. Moreover, the study of geopolymer as soil stabilization material and potential zeolite has increased these past years. Geopolymer is known to have high durability to contaminants. Meanwhile, fly ash is an abundant waste urged to be used yet has a noble property. Therefore, FAG treated soil was assessed as the landfill liner in this study. This research was conducted in the field and laboratory. A field investigation was established by standard penetration test (SPT), soil sampling, ii water, and leachate sampling, and geoelectric measurements. Field investigation aimed to obtain the landfill’s initial condition. Furthermore, the samples collected from the field were investigated in the laboratory to acquire the soil's physical, mechanical, chemical properties, and hydraulic conductivity. Sorption, diffusion, and immobilization tests were then conducted to assess the soil and wastewater’s immobilization properties. The studied soil was categorized as contaminated, mildly contaminated, and uncontaminated soil based on the distance to the waste mound. The FAG treated soil assessed in this study was 5, 10, and 15% FAG addition to the studied soils. Besides, the geoelectric measurements were gathered with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Very Low-Frequency Electromagnetics Method (VLF-EM). The results indicated that the leachate has migrated to the subsurface to 20.0 meters depth despite its low hydraulic conductivity. Regarding this, the dry and rainy season cycles are the reason for the massive increment in hydraulic conductivity. Besides, the natural soil XRF results showed that BH2, the closest to the waste mound, had the highest calcium of 22% and ammonium of 1.2% among the three boreholes. Then, FAG-treated soil was well combined in the research regardless of the contamination. The soil-unconfined compression strength increased up to 30% as the FAG was added; the hydraulic conductivity decreased slightly at 5% and 10% and increased at 15% FAG addition; FAG sorption coefficient increased by 89% compared to the natural soil. The analcime zeolite, which absorbs the NH4+ cation, was also successfully formed following the FAG addition. Finally, the results revealed that fly ash-based geopolymer has a great potential for NH4+ immobilization and is feasible for landfill liner stabilization material.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Open dumping landfill, leachate deployment, ammonium immobilization, landfill clay liner, hydraulic conductivity, soil stabilization, fly ash based geopolymer, contaminant transport.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA455.S6 Soil (Materials of engineering and construction)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA590 Topographical surveying
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA749 Soil stabilization
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD194.6 Environmental impact analysis
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD420 Water pollution
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD427.F58 Fly ash
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD795.7 Sanitary landfills. Leachate--Purification.
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD898.8.C67 Waste disposal
Divisions: Faculty of Civil, Planning, and Geo Engineering (CIVPLAN) > Civil Engineering > 22001-(S3) PhD Thesis
Depositing User: Nila Sutra
Date Deposited: 01 Sep 2021 07:49
Last Modified: 01 Sep 2021 07:49
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/91589

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