Analisis Karakteristik Fisis dan Mekanis Papan Partikel Pelepah Kelapa Sawit dengan Perekat Urea Formaldehida

Aninditaningtyas, Prismardana (2021) Analisis Karakteristik Fisis dan Mekanis Papan Partikel Pelepah Kelapa Sawit dengan Perekat Urea Formaldehida. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

[img] Text
02111640000033-Undergraduate_Thesis.pdf
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (4MB) | Request a copy
[img] Text
02111640000033-Undergraduate_Thesis.pdf
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (3MB) | Request a copy
[img] Text
02111640000033-Undergraduate_Thesis.pdf
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (3MB) | Request a copy
[img] Text
02111640000033-Undergraduate_Thesis.pdf - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 1 October 2023.

Download (3MB) | Request a copy

Abstract

Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan yang memiliki peran penting dalam perekonomian Indonesia. Luas areal perkebunan kelapa sawit meluas seiring produksinya yang meningkat mencapai 14,3 juta hektar dan produksi minyak sawit mentah mencapai 42,9 juta ton pada tahun 2018 yang menyebabkan limbah biomassa yang meningkat juga, salah satunya adalah pelepah kelapa sawit. Pada penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan pelepah kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku papan partikel dengan variasi ukuran partikel dan kerapatan menggunakan perekat Urea Formaldehida (UF) yang kemudian akan dievaluasi karakteristik fisik dan mekaniknya serta melihat pengaruh variasi ukuran partikel dan kerapatan terhadap karakteristik tersebut. Pada penelitian tugas akhir ini, papan partikel dibuat dengan ukuran 20 cm x 25 cm x 1 cm, variasi kerapatan 0,4, 0,5, dan 0,6 gr/cm3, serta dengan variasi ukuran partikel kecil (100 mesh), sedang (18 mesh), dan besar (10 mesh), melalui proses hot-press dengan tekanan 9 ton dan suhu 140°C selama 5 menit, dan kemudian papan partikel disimpan pada suhu ruang untuk dikondisikan. Papan partikel yang sudah melalui proses pengondisian kemudian dipotong menjadi contoh uji dan dilakukan pengujian fisis berupa kerapatan, kadar air, daya serap air, dan pengembangan tebal, serta pengujian mekanis berupa keteguhan patah (MOR), keteguhan lentur (MOE), dan kuat rekat internal (IB) yang mengacu pada standar JIS A 5908-2003. Dari hasil pengujian, diperoleh sifat fisis nilai kerapatan papan partikel sebesar 0,39 – 0,58 gr/cm3, kadar air sebesar 7,43 – 11,56%, daya serap air sebesar 101,98 – 211,22%, dan pengembangan tebal sebesar 32,99 – 52%. Untuk hasil sifat mekanis didapatkan nilai MOE sebesar 74,56 – 538,02 N/mm2, MOR sebesar 0,83 – 5,93 N/mm2 dan IB sebesar 0,003 – 0,389 N/mm2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan variasi kerapatan berpengaruh nyata terhadap daya serap air, pengembangan tebal, keteguhan patah, keteguhan lentur, dan kuat rekat internal. Sedangkan pada kadar air hanya faktor ukuran partikel yang berpengaruh nyata. Berdasarkan standar JIS A 5908-2003, kerapatan papan partikel telah memenuhi standar kecuali untuk partikel ukuran kecil kerapatan 0,39 gr/cm3, kadar air seluruh papan partikel telah memenuhi standar, pengembangan tebal tidak memenuhi standar, keteguhan patah dan lentur tidak ada yang memenuhi standar, dan untuk kuat rekat internal yang memenuhi standar hanya papan partikel dengan partikel sedang kerapatan 0,58 gr/cm3. Walaupun secara keseluruhan nilai yang dihasilkan belum memenuhi standar JIS A 5908-2003, namun dapat ditarik kesimpulan papan partikel dengan variasi ukuran partikel sedang dan kerapatan 0,58 gr/cm3 menghasilkan sifat fisis dan mekanis yang paling baik. ===================================================================================================== Palm oil is a plantation commodity that has an important role in the Indonesian economy. The area of oil palm plantations expanded as production increased to 14.3 million hectares and crude palm oil production reached 42.9 million tons in 2018 which led to an increase of biomass waste, one of which is oil palm fronds. The aim of this study is to utilize oil palm fronds as raw material for particleboard with variations in particle size and density using Urea Formaldehyde (UF) adhesive which would then evaluate its physical and mechanical characteristics and see the effect of variations in particle size and density on these characteristics. In this final project, particleboard was made with sizes of 20 cm x 25 cm x 1 cm, density variations of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 gr/cm3, as well as with variations in particle size of fine (100 mesh), medium (18 mesh), and coarse (10 mesh), went through a hot-press process with a pressure of 9 tons and a temperature of 140°C for 5 minutes holding time, then the particleboard was stored at room temperature for conditioning. Particleboard that has gone through the conditioning process is then cut into test samples and at the last stage physical tests are carried out in the form of density, moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, as well as mechanical tests in the form of modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), and internal bonding (IB) which refers to JIS A 5908-2003. From the results of the testing, physical properties of the particleboard are density value of 0.39 – 0.58 gr/cm3, water content of 7.43 – 11.56%, water absorption of 101.98 – 211.22%, and thickness swelling by 32.99 – 52%. For the results of the mechanical properties obtained MOE values of 74.56 – 538.02 N/mm2, MOR of 0.83 – 5.93 N/mm2 and IB of 0.003 – 0.389 N/mm2. The results showed that particle size and density variations significantly affected water absorption, thickness swelling, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bonding strength. While on the water content only the particle size factor that has a significant effect. Based on the JIS A 5908-2003 standard, the density of particleboard has met the standard except for fine particles with a density of 0.39 gr/cm3, the moisture content of the entire particleboard has met the standard, the thickness swelling does not meet the standard, the bending strength (MOR and MOE) does not meet the standard and for internal bonding strength that meets the standard only particleboard with a medium particle density of 0.58 gr/cm3. Although the overall value produced does not meet the JIS A 5908-2003 standard, it can be concluded that particleboard with a medium particle size variation and a density of 0.58 gr/cm3 produces the best physical and mechanical properties.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: papan partikel, pelepah kelapa sawit, sifat fisis, sifat mekanis, ukuran partikel, urea formaldehida, particleboard, oil palm frond, physical properties, mechanical properties, urea formaldehyde, particle size
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics > QC173.4.C63 Composite materials
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TS Manufactures
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Mechanical Engineering > 21201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Prismardana Aninditaningtyas
Date Deposited: 02 Sep 2021 04:06
Last Modified: 02 Sep 2021 04:06
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/91619

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item