Particle Micronization Of Curcuma Mangga Ethanolic Extract Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technology

Lestari, Sarah Duta (2021) Particle Micronization Of Curcuma Mangga Ethanolic Extract Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technology. Other thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants and
has been widely used as traditional treatment to cure many kinds of human illness.
Most of them are secondary plant substances. Secondary plant metabolism
produces a large number of specialized compounds that do not aid in the growth
and development of plants, but have a large advantages to prevent and cure illness
in human health. Nowadays, a lot of researcher focused on phytochemical to
understand more about their organic structure, chemical, biosynthesis, metabolism
and biological function. With a high number of advantages, phytochemical
extraction from plant has been an interesting focus of research in the last decade.
Temu mangga (Curcuma mangga) is one of the most utilized plant in
medication with several of pharmacological activity. But, the particle of temu
mangga has a lot of flaws because it has a very low solubility in water, lead to a
low bioavailability. And due to high amount of essential oils, the important
compounds in temu mangga are likely to be easily oxidized and degraded.
The conventional method of micronization has so many drawbacks.
Therefore, there is a great interest in developing a new technology to enhance the
bioavailability of the temu mangga and to find a new formulation to protect the
active component from rapid degradation. And one of those technology is particle
micronization process. Micronization process could increase the solubility of temu
mangga by size reduction mechanism, and/or particle encapsulation mechanism. In
the result, micronized particle of temu mangga will be obtained with a smaller
particle size, reach to nano-size range. And also by encapsulation, the active
compounds is maintained and not easily degraded. By using the supercritical
technology, the micronization process take place more efficiently, produced smaller
particle size, and particle modification is so much easier just by tuning the operating
The aim of this research are to understand the effect of operating condition
towards particle morphology in micronization using supercritical antisolvent (SAS)
process, to understand the effect of particle encapsulation with biopolymer towards
the particle size and morphology, and to understand the flow inside the nozzle in
SAS process using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The role of
nozzle in micronization process is how to enlarge the contact surface area and
increase the mass transfer as much as possible, because differences in the geometry
will provide different flow phenomena as well. And because the internal flow of
the nozzle is very complex, experimental results cannot explain the mechanism
inside the nozzle entirely. Hence, simulations using CFD will be of help to
understand the flow in the nozzle for preparing microparticles of C. mangga using
SAS. For the result, hopefully it can enhance the bioavailability of C. mangga
particle by increasing the solubility in aqueous solution using supercritical
antisolvent method.
Chapter 1 describes the background, motivation, and the objectives of the
dissertation. Chapter 2 provides some explanation about the technology which is
used in this research. Chapter 3 explains the methodology of this research.
Chapter 4 explain the micronization process of C.mangga using SAS
process. In this study, ethanolic extracts of C. mangga were micronized using the
SAS method. The effect of operating condition such as operating pressure and
temperature were studied. Acetone, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were used
as solvents to study the effects of solvent selection on the obtained particles. The
effects of nozzle geometry (cross nozzle and T-nozzle) on particle size and
morphology were also evaluated. Microparticles and submicron particles were
successfully produced with particle sizes ranging from 0.202 ± 0.05 μm to 1.653 ±
0.89 μm. Of the three solvents, ethyl acetate produced smaller particle sizes with a
narrow particle size distribution. For all the types of solvents used, micronized
particles prepared with the cross-nozzle had smaller average particle sizes than with
the T-nozzle, further explanation is given at Chapter 5. The smallest particles of
mean size 0.202 ± 0.05 μm were achieved at 16 MPa and 313 K using ethyl acetate
as the solvent and a cross-nozzle.
In Chapter 5, the simulation process of the nozzle in micronization process
was studied. It aim to understand more about the effect of the nozzle geometry
towards the particle size and distribution. The role of the nozzle is how to be able
to enlarge the contact surface area and increase the mass transfer as much as
possible, because differences in the geometry of the nozzle such as the dimensions
of the nozzle and the inlet position of the solution will provide different flow
phenomena as well. Therefore, in this Chapter the effects of two different nozzle
geometries will be discussed, namely the T-nozzle and the cross-nozzle.
Computational fluid dynamics simulations were successfully performed on the
internal flow to study the turbulent flow and volume fraction inside the nozzle. The
results of this are expected to help improve the applications of the active ingredients
of C. mangga rhizomes in the pharmaceutical industry.
In Chapter 6, C. mangga rhizomes ethanolic extract/PVP micronized
particles were prepared using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method. The
ethanolic extract was obtained from dried C. mangga rhizomes using soxhletation.
A mixture of acetone and ethanol (90:10 (v/v)) was used as the solvent, while
supercritical CO2 was used as the antisolvent. The effect of the operating conditions
on the size and morphology, and characteristic of the particles was evaluated. By
using this process, nanoparticles with an average diameter ranging from 111 ± 47
nm to 210 ± 120 nm were successfully formed. The particle size decreased as the
temperature in- creased, whereas pressure did not significantly affect the particle
size or morphology. A lower concentration of the feed produced smaller particle
sizes. Based on the optimization using the RSM Box-Behnken design, the best
result was predicted at a pressure of 15.65 MPa, temperature of 36.7 oC, C. mangga
to PVP ratio of 1:13.7, and feed concentration of 3.18 mg/ml with a predicted
particle size of 99.31 nm, which is less than the experimental results. This
investigation has the potential to improve the use of C. mangga rhizomes in
pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.
Lastly, Chapter 7 consist of the conclusion of this study and suggestion for
further investigation about this topic.

Item Type: Thesis (Other)
Uncontrolled Keywords: bioavailability, particle size, solvent evaporation, nozzle
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD63 Extraction
Q Science > QK Botany > QK14.5 Botanical literature (Including works on herbals)
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Data Analytics (SCIENTICS) > Chemistry > 47001-(S3) PhD Thesis
Depositing User: - Davi Wah
Date Deposited: 21 Jan 2022 06:22
Last Modified: 28 Apr 2023 05:42

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