Particle Micronization Of Curcuma Mangga Ethanolic Extract Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technology

Lestari, Sarah Duta (2021) Particle Micronization Of Curcuma Mangga Ethanolic Extract Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technology. Doctoral thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants and has been widely used as traditional treatment to cure many kinds of human illness. Most of them are secondary plant substances. Secondary plant metabolism produces a large number of specialized compounds that do not aid in the growth and development of plants, but have a large advantages to prevent and cure illness in human health. Nowadays, a lot of researcher focused on phytochemical to understand more about their organic structure, chemical, biosynthesis, metabolism and biological function. With a high number of advantages, phytochemical extraction from plant has been an interesting focus of research in the last decade. Temu mangga (Curcuma mangga) is one of the most utilized plant in medication with several of pharmacological activity. But, the particle of temu mangga has a lot of flaws because it has a very low solubility in water, lead to a low bioavailability. And due to high amount of essential oils, the important compounds in temu mangga are likely to be easily oxidized and degraded. The conventional method of micronization has so many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a great interest in developing a new technology to enhance the bioavailability of the temu mangga and to find a new formulation to protect the active component from rapid degradation. And one of those technology is particle micronization process. Micronization process could increase the solubility of temu mangga by size reduction mechanism, and/or particle encapsulation mechanism. In the result, micronized particle of temu mangga will be obtained with a smaller particle size, reach to nano-size range. And also by encapsulation, the active compounds is maintained and not easily degraded. By using the supercritical technology, the micronization process take place more efficiently, produced smaller particle size, and particle modification is so much easier just by tuning the operating variables. The aim of this research are to understand the effect of operating condition towards particle morphology in micronization using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process, to understand the effect of particle encapsulation with biopolymer towards iv the particle size and morphology, and to understand the flow inside the nozzle in SAS process using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The role of nozzle in micronization process is how to enlarge the contact surface area and increase the mass transfer as much as possible, because differences in the geometry will provide different flow phenomena as well. And because the internal flow of the nozzle is very complex, experimental results cannot explain the mechanism inside the nozzle entirely. Hence, simulations using CFD will be of help to understand the flow in the nozzle for preparing microparticles of C. mangga using SAS. For the result, hopefully it can enhance the bioavailability of C. mangga particle by increasing the solubility in aqueous solution using supercritical antisolvent method. Chapter 1 describes the background, motivation, and the objectives of the dissertation. Chapter 2 provides some explanation about the technology which is used in this research. Chapter 3 explains the methodology of this research. Chapter 4 explain the micronization process of C.mangga using SAS process. In this study, ethanolic extracts of C. mangga were micronized using the SAS method. The effect of operating condition such as operating pressure and temperature were studied. Acetone, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were used as solvents to study the effects of solvent selection on the obtained particles. The effects of nozzle geometry (cross nozzle and T-nozzle) on particle size and morphology were also evaluated. Microparticles and submicron particles were successfully produced with particle sizes ranging from 0.202 ± 0.05 μm to 1.653 ± 0.89 μm. Of the three solvents, ethyl acetate produced smaller particle sizes with a narrow particle size distribution. For all the types of solvents used, micronized particles prepared with the cross-nozzle had smaller average particle sizes than with the T-nozzle, further explanation is given at Chapter 5. The smallest particles of mean size 0.202 ± 0.05 μm were achieved at 16 MPa and 313 K using ethyl acetate as the solvent and a cross-nozzle. In Chapter 5, the simulation process of the nozzle in micronization process was studied. It aim to understand more about the effect of the nozzle geometry towards the particle size and distribution. The role of the nozzle is how to be able to enlarge the contact surface area and increase the mass transfer as much as v possible, because differences in the geometry of the nozzle such as the dimensions of the nozzle and the inlet position of the solution will provide different flow phenomena as well. Therefore, in this Chapter the effects of two different nozzle geometries will be discussed, namely the T-nozzle and the cross-nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were successfully performed on the internal flow to study the turbulent flow and volume fraction inside the nozzle. The results of this are expected to help improve the applications of the active ingredients of C. mangga rhizomes in the pharmaceutical industry. In Chapter 6, C. mangga rhizomes ethanolic extract/PVP micronized particles were prepared using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method. The ethanolic extract was obtained from dried C. mangga rhizomes using soxhletation. A mixture of acetone and ethanol (90:10 (v/v)) was used as the solvent, while supercritical CO2 was used as the antisolvent. The effect of the operating conditions on the size and morphology, and characteristic of the particles was evaluated. By using this process, nanoparticles with an average diameter ranging from 111 ± 47 nm to 210 ± 120 nm were successfully formed. The particle size decreased as the temperature in- creased, whereas pressure did not significantly affect the particle size or morphology. A lower concentration of the feed produced smaller particle sizes. Based on the optimization using the RSM Box-Behnken design, the best result was predicted at a pressure of 15.65 MPa, temperature of 36.7 oC, C. mangga to PVP ratio of 1:13.7, and feed concentration of 3.18 mg/ml with a predicted particle size of 99.31 nm, which is less than the experimental results. This investigation has the potential to improve the use of C. mangga rhizomes in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Lastly, Chapter 7 consist of the conclusion of this study and suggestion for further investigation about this topic.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: bioavailability, particle size, solvent evaporation, nozzle
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD63 Extraction
Q Science > QK Botany > QK14.5 Botanical literature (Including works on herbals)
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Data Analytics (SCIENTICS) > Chemistry > 47001-(S3) PhD Thesis
Depositing User: - Davi Wah
Date Deposited: 21 Jan 2022 06:22
Last Modified: 21 Jan 2022 06:22
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/92452

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