Kajian Dampak Proses Produksi Dan Distribusi Natural Gas Terhadap Lingkungan Dengan Metode Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Imansyah, Firlianda (2022) Kajian Dampak Proses Produksi Dan Distribusi Natural Gas Terhadap Lingkungan Dengan Metode Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Natural gas sebagai komponen vital dari pasokan energi dunia karena penggunaannya bersih, paling aman, dan paling berguna dari sumber energi. Sebagian besar, kandungan natural gas berupa gas metana (CH4) yang berpotensi terbentuknya gas rumah kaca yang tinggi. Produk gas alam dalam suatu rangkaian proses yang kompleks dengan melibatkan berbagai kegiatan, mulai dari proses hulu, proses utama, hingga proses hilir. Proses hulu berupa pengambilan gas dari sumur, kemudian dilakukan proses utama berupa pengolahan gas hingga ke tahap hilir berupa proses distribusi. Proses-proses tersebut membutuhkan bahan bakar untuk dijadikan sebagai produk natural gas. Hasil proses tersebut memberikan produk samping residu yang dapat memberikan dampak kepada lingkungan dan manusia. Meningkatnya proses produksi dan distribusi natural gas akan menyebabkan peningkatkan pencemaran lingkungan yang diakibatkan oleh jumlah bahan bakar yang tinggi. Oleh sebab itu, diperlukan adanya analisa dan identifikasi dampak dari proses produksi dan distribusi natural gas dengan metode Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA adalah metode memperkirakan potensi dampak yang dihasilkan oleh suatu kegiatan proses bahan baku yang digunakan hingga produk akhir pada keseluruhan suatu proses. Penelitian ini mengidentifikasi potensi dampak lingkungan unit operasi proses produksi dan distribusi natural gas berdasarkan pendekatan cradle to gate dengan natural gas sebagai produk utamanya. Identifikasi dampak lingkungan dilakukan dengan metode Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) dengan aplikasi SimaPro. Tahapan LCA terdiri dari goal and scope definiton, life cycle inventory (LCI), life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), dan intepretation data. Metode yang digunakan untuk kategori dampak kajian LCA adalah ReCiPe 2016 dengan penilaian dampak secara midpoint dan endpoint. Menunjang analisa LCA, dilakukan analisis ketidakpastian yaitu melakukan penilaian kualitas data untuk penentuan distribusi probabilitas data dan dianalisis menggunakan simulasi Monte Carlo. Berdasarkan hasil analisa LCA dan analisis ketidakpastian tersebut, dilakukan analisis skenario penurunan dampak lingkungan dengan program lingkungan. Penilaian dampak lingkungan dengan LCA menunjukkan proses produksi 1 ton natural gas memberikan kontribusi dampak lebih besar yaitu 5,3164 Pt daripada proses distribusi 1 ton natural gas yaitu 0,1449 Pt. Dampak lingkungan paling dominan pada proses produksi natural gas adalah fossil resource scarcity sedangkan pada proses distribusi natural gas adalah global warming. Pada proses produksi natural gas kontribusi dampak lingkungan terbesar berasal dari unit proses Compressor C-1A, Compressor C-1B, dan Glycol Reboiler. Pada proses distribusi natural gas kontribusi dampak lingkungan terbesar berasal dari unit proses Flarestack. Analisis ketidakpastian data emisi proses produksi 1 ton natural gas memberikan kontribusi dampak lingkungan antara 4,842-5,928 Pt dan proses distribusi 1 ton natural gas memberikan kontribusi dampak lingkungan sebesar 0,14486 Pt. Program lingkungan paling optimum dalam menurunkan dampak lingkungan pada proses produksi natural gas yaitu program optimalisasi kompresor dengan kapasitas motor lebih kecil memiliki persentase penurunan dampak sebesar 3,12%. Sedangkan pada proses distribusi natural gas yaitu program optimalisasi flarestack dengan sistem RCM memiliki persentase penurunan dampak sebesar 1,41%. ============================================================================================== Natural gas is a vital component of the world's energy supply because it is the cleanest, safest, and most useful of energy sources. Most of the natural gas content is in the form of methane (CH4) which has the potential to form high greenhouse gases. Natural gas products in a series of complex processes involving various activities, ranging from upstream processes, main processes, to downstream processes. The upstream process is in the form of taking gas from the well, then the main process is in the form of gas processing to the downstream stage in the form of a distribution process. These processes require fuel to be used as natural gas products. The results of the process provide residual by-products that can have an impact on the environment and humans. The increase in the production process and distribution of natural gas will lead to an increase in environmental pollution caused by the high amount of fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze and identify the impact of the natural gas production and distribution process using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. LCA is a method of estimating the potential impact generated by a processing activity of raw materials used for the final product in the entire process. This research is based on the approach to identify the potential environmental impact of the operating unit production process and distribution of natural gas based on the cradle to gate approach with natural gas as the main product. Identification of environmental impacts is carried out using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method with the SimaPro software. The LCA stages consist of goal and scope definitions, life cycle inventory (LCI), life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and data interpretation. The method used for the impact category of the LCA study is ReCiPe 2016 with impacts at the midpoint and endpoint. To support the LCA analysis, an uncertainty analysis was carried out, namely assessing the quality of the data to determine the probability distribution of the data and analyzed using a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the LCA analysis and the uncertainty analysis, scenario analysis of environmental impact reduction with environmental programs is carried out. Environmental impact assessment with LCA shows that the production process of 1 ton of natural gas contributes a greater impact, namely 5.3164 Pt than the distribution process of 1 ton of natural gas, which is 0.1449 Pt. The most dominant environmental impact on the natural gas production process is fossil resource scarcity, while the natural gas distribution process is global warming. In the natural gas production process, the largest environmental impact contribution comes from the Compressor C-1A, Compressor C-1B, and Glycol Reboiler process units. In the natural gas distribution process, the largest environmental impact contribution comes from the Flarestack process unit. The uncertainty analysis emission data of the production process of 1 ton of natural gas contributes to the environmental impact between 4.842-5.928 Pt and the distribution process of 1 ton of natural gas contributes to the environmental impact of 0.14486 Pt. The most optimum environmental program in reducing the environmental impact on the natural gas production process is the compressor optimization program with a smaller motor capacity, has a percentage reduction of 3.12%. Meanwhile, in the natural gas distribution process, there is an optimization flare stack with RCM System has a percentage reduction of 1,41%.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dampak Lingkungan, Distribusi Gas Alam, Gas Alam, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Produksi Gas Alam ======================================================================================================================== Distribution Process of Natural Gas, Environmental Impact, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Natural Gas, Production Process of Natural Gas
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD194.6 Environmental impact analysis
Divisions: Faculty of Civil, Planning, and Geo Engineering (CIVPLAN) > Environmental Engineering > 25101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: Firlianda Imansyah
Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2022 07:45
Last Modified: 11 Feb 2022 07:45
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/93770

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