Pemisahan Dan Pemurnian Trigliserida Dari Minyak Nyamplung (Calophyllum Inophyllum) Sebagai Alternatif Edible Oil Dengan Proses Continuous Countercurrent Extraction

Putri, Shelma Hajar Anugrah and Prayogo, Arief (2018) Pemisahan Dan Pemurnian Trigliserida Dari Minyak Nyamplung (Calophyllum Inophyllum) Sebagai Alternatif Edible Oil Dengan Proses Continuous Countercurrent Extraction. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Tanaman nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) merupakan jenis tanaman bakau yang serbaguna dan memiliki banyak khasiat. Bijinya mengandung minyak sekitar 75% berat. Penelitian terdahulu menyatakan bahwa minyak nyamplung tidak dapat dikonsumsi oleh manusia karena kandungan trigliserida yang belum murni. Berdasarkan penelitian terkini mengenai fragmentasi asam lemak bebas pada trigliserida, dinyatakan bahwa minyak biji nyamplung dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai edible oil (minyak yang dapat dikonsumsi). Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh laju aliran feed dan ratio pelarut dan Minyak Nyamplung terhadap kandungan trigliserida (TAG) dan asam lemak bebas (FFA) pada Non Polar Lipid Fraction (NPLF) minyak nyamplung, serta mengetahui komposisi TAG dan FFA pada NPLF minyak nyamplung di tiap-tiap titik sampel pada alat continuous countercurrent extraction. Dengan ini diharapkan agar trigliserida menjadi lebih murni dan memenuhi standar edible oil. Variabel yang digunakan yaitu laju alir (NHexane+minyak):methanol dan rasio massa total pelarut : minyak. Laju alir (N-Hexane+minyak):methanol yang digunakan adalah 6:12,5;6:15 dan 6:20 liter per jam (LPH) . Serta, rasio massa total pelarut : minyak sebesar 4:1 ;5:1;6:1 dan 7:1. Minyak nyamplung yang digunakan mengandung TAG 63,91%, FFA 15,76%, MAG 12,25%, dan DAG 4,66%. Proses pemurnian dilakukan menggunakan packed column dengan prinsip countercurrent flow dengan pelarut n-hexane teknis dan methanol teknis. Aliran ekstrak akan keluar melalui dasar kolom dan aliran raffinate keluar melalui atas kolom. Ekstrak kemudian dikumpulkan dan diuapkan untuk mendapatkan PLF, sedangkan raffinate juga dilakukan hal yang sama untuk mendapat NPLF. Sampel dari tiap titik sampel dipisahkan fraksi polar dan non-polar, lalu masing-masing fraksi diuapkan untuk mendapatkan NPLF dan PLF tiap titik sampel. Hasil penguapan dianalisa kandungannya menggunakan analisa kualitatif yaitu Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) dan kuantitatif menggunakan Gas Chromatography (GC). Dari penelitian didapatkan hasil percobaan dengan laju alir (Nhexane+minyak):metanol= 6:15 LPH dan rasio massa total pelarut:minyak=6:1 dengan diperoleh 92,85% konten TAG, 2,19 % konten FFA dan 74,79% yield minyak. ========================================================= Calophyllum inophyllum or commonly called Nyamplung in Indonesia, is one kind of versatile plant and has many benefits. The seed contains 75% weight of oil. Nyamplung oil is known as an oil that can not be consumed because the content is not pure triglycerides. Based on recent research about fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol, it is stated that C. inophyllum oil is suitable for edible oil purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of feed’s flowrates and solvent to oil ratio on the content of triglycerides (TAG) and Free Fatty Acid (FFA) in Non-Polar Lipid Fraction (NPLF) of nyamplung oil with continuous countercurrent extraction and to determine the TAG composition in NPLF of nyamplung oil at every sampling spot in continuous countercurrent extraction equipment. It is expected that TAG becomes more pure and suitable for edible oil purpose. Variables for this experiment were flowrate of (Nhexane+oil):methanol and solvent to oil mass ratio. The flowrates of (N-hexane+oil):methanol used were 6:12,5;6:15 and 6:20 Liter per hour (LPH) and the solvents to oil mass ratio used were 4:1 ;5:1;6:1 and 7:1 . The crude oil of nyamplung contained 63,91% TAG, 15,76% FFA, 12,25% MAG, dan 4,66% DAG. Purification of TAG was carried out using a packed column with the principle of countercurrent flow using n-hexane and methanol technical grade as solvents. The extract flows from bottom column and the raffinate flows from top column. Then, the extract fraction was collected and distilled to get PLF, then the same method was done for raffinate to get NPLF. The polar and non-polar fraction were separated from every sample from sampling spot, then they were distilled to get the PLF and NPLF every sample. The products of distillation were analyzed qualitatively by TLC and quantitatively by GC. The best result was obtained when flowrates (Nhexane+oil):methanol were set at 6:15 LPH and solvent to oil mass ratio at 6:1 with 92.85% content of TAG, 2.19% content of FFA and 74,79% yield of oil.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSK 660.284 2 Put p
Uncontrolled Keywords: Asam Lemak Bebas, Countercurrent Extraction, Edible Oil, Non Polar Lipid Fraction, Nyamplung, Trigliserida.
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HA Statistics > HA31.35 Analysis of variance
Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD63 Extraction
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP156 Crystallization. Extraction (Chemistry). Fermentation. Distillation. Emulsions.
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP248.3 Biochemical engineering. Bioprocess engineering
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP370 Food processing and manufacture
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Shelma Hajar Anugrah Putri
Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2019 04:27
Last Modified: 11 Feb 2019 04:27
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/53562

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