Pra-Desain Pabrik Eugenol Dari Daun Cengkeh

Fajarini, Rissa and Sari, Novita (2019) Pra-Desain Pabrik Eugenol Dari Daun Cengkeh. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Indonesia merupakan negara yang kaya akan keanekaragaman hayati. Terdapat bermacam-macam jenis tanaman yang dapat tumbuh subur di Indonesia. Namun sayangnya keanekaragaman sumber daya alam tersebut masih belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Salah satu komoditi yang memiliki potensi besar di Indonesia adalah minyak atsiri dan senyawa turunan minyak atsiri. Meskipun banyak jenis minyak atsiri yang bisa diproduksi di Indonesia, baru sebagian kecil jenis minyak atsiri yang telah diusahakan di Indonesia. Minyak daun cengkeh adalah salah satu jenis dari minyak atsiri yang terdapat di Indonesia dimana Indonesia merupakan negara penghasil cengkeh terbesar di dunia. Di dalam minyak daun cengkeh terdapat Eugenol yang memiliki banyak kegunaan baik di bidang industri, pangan, dan farmasi. Untuk mendapatkan eugenol dari bahan baku berupa daun cengkeh, proses pertama yang dilakukan adalah mengambil minyak atsiri daun cengkeh dengan cara distilasi uap menggunakan steam pada tekanan 1,3bar dan suhu 124oC. Setelah itu eugenol yang terkandung di dalam minyak daun cengkeh akan melalui proses refinery (pemurnian) dengan proses distilasi vakum. Pada proses ini pemisahan ini memanfaatkan perbedaan titik didih pada komponen yang terkandungg di minyak atsiri daun cengkeh. Dimana eugenol sebagai penyusun terbesar minyak atsiri cengkeh diharapkan teruapkan menjadi distilat terpisah dengan komponen terbesar kedua cengkeh setelah eugenol yaitu β-caryophillene. Dengan menggunakan tekanan vakum, titik didih dapat diturunkan dan distilasi dapat berlangsung tanpa mengakibatkan terjadinya dekomposisi pada senyawa penyusun minyak atsiri daun cengkeh. Pabrik eugenol clove leaf essential oilini direncanakan didirikan di daerah kabupaten Mojokerto, Jawa Timur dan mulai beroperasi pada tahun 2022 dengan bahan baku daun cengkeh 20,3 ton/hari diperoleh kapasitas produksi eugenol sebesar 733kg /hari. Dari hasil analisa ekonomi yang telah dilakukan, didapat laju pengembalian modal (IRR) 25,31% masa pengembalian modal (POT) 3,57 tahun, dan titik impas (BEP) 59,03% sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa pabrik minyak atsiri berbahan baku daun cengkeh layak didirikan. ================ Indonesia is a country rich of biodiversity. There are tons of plant species grown in Indonesia. It is an unfortunate waste if we cannot utilize the richness optimally. One of the commodities which has a big potential in Indonesia is essential oil and its derivatives. Even though there are many kinds of essential oil that can be produced in Indonesia, a small amount of its kind that is manufactured in this country. Clove leaf oil is one of essential oil that is available in Indonesia: the biggest clove producer in the world. The clove leaf oil contains Eugenol that has many utilities including food and pharmacy. To obtain Eugenol from clove leaf, the first step to be done is taking the clove leaf essential oil by steam distillation using steam with the pressure of 1,3 bars and temperature of 124oC. Then the eugenol contained in clove leaf essential oil is being purified by refinery process using vacuum distillation. This process utilizes the boiling point difference between the components inside the clove leaf essential oil. Eugenol as the main constituent components of the clove leaf essential oil is expected to vaporize to be separate distillate apart from the second biggest constituent components that is β-caryophillene. Using vacuum pressure, the boiling point can be dropped and distillation can happen without causing decomposition of the constituent components inside the clove leaf essential oil. The plant of eugenol clove leaf essential oil is planned to be established in Mojokerto, East Java and started the operation in 2022 with the raw materials of clove leaf 20,3 tonnes/day which 733 kg/day of eugenol can be obtained. From the economic analysis that has been conducted, the internal rate of return (IRR) is 25,31% the payout time (POT) period is 3,57 years, and the breakeven point (BEP) is 59,03%. Thus it can be concluded that the clove leaf essential oil plant is feasible to be established.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Eugenol, daun cengkeh, b-caryophyllene, distilasi vakum, steam distillation, Clove leaf oil
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP159.S4 Separators (Machine)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP370 Food processing and manufacture
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP669 Oils, fats, and waxes
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology > Chemical Engineering > (S1) Undergraduate Theses
Depositing User: Rissa Fajarini
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2019 07:55
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2019 07:55
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/61547

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