Modifikasi Enzimatik Limbah Bulu Ayam Sebagai Pakan Ternak Kaya Nutrisi

Larasati, Ditya (2015) Modifikasi Enzimatik Limbah Bulu Ayam Sebagai Pakan Ternak Kaya Nutrisi. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Bulu merupakan limbah organik terdiri atas 90% keratin yaitu protein berstruktur α-heliks (α-keratin) atau β-sheet (β- keratin) dengan ikatan disulfida dan ikatan hidrogen. Ikatan dan struktur keratin membuat limbah bulu sukar didegradasi. Meski demikian, bulu unggas dapat didegradasi dengan menggunakan metode mekanis, kimia, dan biologi. Kekurangan dari metode mekanis dan kimia adalah membutuhkan input energi yang besar, menimbulkan masalah lingkungan, dan merusak asam-asam amino tertentu sehingga kualitas dan kecernaan protein menurun. Solusi alternatif dan inovatif untuk mengatasi limbah bulu unggas yang melimpah adalah dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme keratinolitik yang mampu menghasilkan keratinase dan mendegradasi keratin menjadi asam amino dan peptida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan kadar protein terlarut dari limbah bulu ayam yang telah dimodifikasi secara enzimatik menggunakan enzim keratinase dan mengetahui pengaruh pakan ternak dengan sumber protein alternatif limbah bulu ayam terhadap penampilan produksi ayam broiler. Enzim keratinase diproduksi oleh Bacillus sp. SLII-I melalui fermentasi menggunakan media feather meal (FM) yang mengandung bulu. Enzim keratinase diisolasi menggunakan metode sentrifugasi dan diukur aktivitas erta kandungan protein enzim. Limbah bulu dimodifikasi secara enzimatik dan diamati peningkatan kadar protein terlarutnya. Hasil modifikasi enzimatik limbah bulu yang memiliki kadar protein terlarut iv tertinggi dikonversi menjadi sumber protein alternatif pakan yang digunakan sebanyak 5% dalam formula pakan. Pakan diuji coba pada ternak ayam broiler (Gallus domesticus) selama sebulan dengan dengan parameter pengukuran konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan, dan konversi pakan. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis menggunakan prosedur analisis ragam (Analysis of Variance /ANOVA) dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Hasil Penelitian menunjukan bahwa Bacillus sp. SLII-I mampu menghasilkan menghasilkan enzim keratinase kasar dengan aktivitas enzim 2,08 (mg/detik)/ml yang dapat meningkatkan kadar protein terlarut tepung bulu ayam hingga 22,06% dan memberikan pengaruh terhadap penampilan produksi ayam broiler dibandingkan dengan tepung bungkil kedelai dan tepung ikan. Adapun ayam broiler dengan pakan tepung bulu memberikan penampilan produksi meliputi konsumsi pakan, pertambahan berat badan, dan konversi pakan masingmasing sebesar 1194,8 gram/ekor, 567 gram/ekor, dan 2,11. ================================================================================================= Feathers is organic waste consists of 90% keratin protein that have α-heliks (α-keratin) or β-sheet (β-keratin)structure link by disulfide and hydrogen bonds. Structures and linkages of keratin make feathers waste very difficult to degrade. Despite the rigid structure of keratin, it can be degraded by mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. The major drawback of mechanical and chemical degradation methods is requires great input energy, give rise to environmental problems, and are destructive to certain amino acids that leads to low protein quality and digestibility. The alternative and innovative solution to overcome abundant of feathers waste is by the utilization of keratinolytic microorganism capable of producing keratinase and degrade keratin become amino acids and peptides. This research aimed at ascertaining increase levels of protein dissolved from chicken feathers waste that has been modified enzymatically using keratinase and find out the influence of livestock feed with alternatice source of protein from chicken feathers waste to production performance of broiler chicken. Keratinase produced by Bacillus sp. SLII-I through fermentation using feather meal media (FM) containing feather. Keratinase isolated by centrifugation method, activy and protein content is measured. Chicken feathers waste modified enzymatically and levels of dissolved protein is observed. An enzymatic engineered feathers waste which have the highest increase level of dissolved protein converted into alternative vi source of protein. Livestock feed with alternative source of protein from chicken feathers waste tested in broiler chicken for a month. The measurement parameter in feed consumption, body weight addition, and conversion of feed obtained and analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) continued by Duncan (Pos Hoc Test) with the level of trust 95%. The result show that Bacillus sp. SLII-I produce keratinase with 2,08 (mg/detik)/ml activity that can increase dissolved protein level till 22,06%. This alternative protein source show positive effect to the feed consumption, addition of weight, and feed convertion ration total are 1194,8 gram/head, 567 gram/head, and 2,1. The research result show that Bacillus sp. SLII-I capable of producing keratinase with the activity of enzyme 2.08 (mg/detik)/ ml that could increase protein levels of dissolved protein of chicken feather until 22.06% and give the effect on production performance of broiler chicken compared with soybean meal and fish meal. Broiler chicken consumed feather meal give production performance which is feed consumption, addition of weight, and feed convertion ration that are 1194,8 gram/head, 567 gram/head, and 2,1.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSBi 572.7 Lar m
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bacillus sp. SLII-I, Keratinase, Keratin, Pakan Ternak, Ayam broiler
Subjects: Q Science > QH Biology > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Mathematics and Science > Biology > 46201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Yeni Anita Gonti
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2020 05:31
Last Modified: 26 Feb 2020 05:31
URI: http://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/75195

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