Desain Pabrik Garam Industri dan Garam Konsumsi dari Garam Krosok dengan Metode Pencucian

Ardianto, Bahar Ilman and Syahbana, Lubna Putri (2019) Desain Pabrik Garam Industri dan Garam Konsumsi dari Garam Krosok dengan Metode Pencucian. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia. Dengan garis pantai terpanjang kedua di dunia serta tiga perempat wilayah Indonesia adalah laut, Indonesia memiliki potensi sumber daya alam perairan yang sangat besar. Potensi perairan ini dapat dimanfaatkan salah satunya sebagai bahan dasar produksi komoditi garam (NaCl). Garam merupakan benda kristal padat berwarna putih dengan komponen utama penyusunnya adalah Natrium Klorida (NaCl) dan mengandung beberapa senyawa lain seperti Kalsium Sulfat (CaSO4), Magnesium Klorida (MgCl2), dan lain-lain. Garam dapat diproduksi dari bahan baku seperti air laut, danau air asin, deposit garam dalam tanah, serta sumur garam. Menurut fungsinya, garam terbagi atas 2 jenis, yaitu garam konsumsi dan garam industri. Garam konsumsi adalah garam dengan kadar NaCl paling sedikit 94,7% (dry basis), sedangkan garam industri merupakan garam dengan kadar NaCl paling sedikit 97% (dry basis). Garam konsumsi dipergunakan sebagai penambah rasa asin pada makanan, sedangkan garam industri diperuntukkan sebagai bahan baku maupun bahan tambahan bagi keperluan industri lain, seperti industri tekstil, farmasi, dan sebagainya. Garam industri memiliki spesifikasi kandungan NaCl lebih tinggi dari garam konsumsi dan memerlukan proses pembuatan yang lebih kompleks. Bahan baku Garam Krosok yang digunakan memiliki komposisi NaCl sebesar 85%, CaSO4 sebesar 2,1%, CaCl2 sebesar 1%, MgCl2 sebesar 3,8%, pengotor lain sebesar 0,5%, serta kandungan air sebesar 7,7%. Kapasitas produksi garam direncanakan sebesar 40.000 ton/tahun. Dalam pemenuhan kapasitas tahunan, pabrik akan beroperasi kontinyu 24 jam per hari selama 330 hari.dari produksi sebesar 58.373,49 ton/tahun atau sekitar 7370,39 kg/jam, dapat dihasilkan produk garam industri sebesar 2549,96 kg/jam dan garam konsumsi sebesar 2550,04 kg/jam. Selain garam, pabrik ini juga menghasilkan limbah berupa slurry sebesar 6065 kg/jam dimana slurry tersebut mengandung NaCl, CaSO4, Na2SO4, Mg(OH)2, NaOH, CaCO3, dan air. Proses pemubuatan garam garam industri dan konsumsi dapat diuraikan menjadi 3 tahapan proses, yaitu persiapan (pre-treatment) bahan baku, proses utama (main process) dan tahap akhir (post-treatment). Pada tahap persiapan, garam krosok yang telah berada di dalam hopper di ruang proses selanjutnya dikirimkan ke mesin roll mill kasar. Pengiriman dilakukan menggunakan screw conveyor dan disambung dengan bucket elevator. Garam selanjutnya digiling kasar dengan menggunakan mesin roll mill / wet mill sehingga ukurannya menjadi lebih kecil dan relatif seragam. Main process dari pemurnian garam krosok ini adalah proses washing atau pencucian garam mengunakan brine atau larutan aram jeuh untuk meghilangan pengotor seperti MgCl2, CaSO4. Proses tersebut terjadi 2 kali. Pencucian pertama menggunkan mixer tank, sedangkan pecucian kedua menggunakan screw washer. Pada pencucian bahan baku garam krosok tahap I Garam krosok dari mesin roll mill kasar kemudian dikirimkan ke tangki pencuci garam tahap 1. Mesin pencuci tahap 1 berbentuk tangka berpengaduk. Selanjutnya garam krosok yang telah tercuci dikirimkan ke mesin pencuci tahap 2 yang berbentuk screw washer dengan model pengaduk berupa screw atau tangki berpengaduk. Pencucian tahap garam krosok tahap 2 ini dimaksudkan untuk menyempurnakan proses pencucian di tahap 1 mengingat kadar kadar krosok yang berasal dari lahan pegaraman berkadar NaCl rerata 85-90 %. Pemisahan kristal garam dan larutan garam Garam hasil pencucian di screw waher selanjutnya dikirimkan ke peralatan centrifuge. Fungsi centrifugee ini disamping memisahkan kristal garam dan larutan garam, juga dapat berfungsi untuk mengefektifkan proses pemurnian garam. Selanjutnya garam akan melalui proses drying dimana proses ini bertujuan untuk mengurangi kadar air dalam garam agar kemurnian garam dapat meningkat sesuai dengan standar SNI. Pada tahap akhir, garam dari rotary dryer akan memasuki rotary cooler untuk mengurangi suhu dari garam agar tidak terlalu panas. Seletah suhu garam turun, garam akan melalui tahap penggilingan pada ball mill dimana pada proses ini, bertujuan untuk mengecilkan ukuran garam. Setealh di giling, garam kemudian disortir pada alat screener untuk memisahkan garam dengan ukuran yang telah sesuai standar dengan yang tidak sesuai standar. Garam yang tidak sesai standar akan dikembalikan ke ball mill. Selanjutnya garam akan dimasukkan ke dalam product silo menggunakan screw conveyor. Pada product silo, garam akan ditampung dan aliran dari garam akan dibagi menjadi 2 berdasarkan fungsinya yaitu untuk garam industry dan garam konsumsi. Gara industri yang keluar akan langsung menuju packing unit untuk dikemas dalam karung karung. Sedangkan aliran garam konsumsi akan melewati screw conveyor yang telah dilengkapi dengan sprayer untuk ditambahkna larutan iodium agar sesuai dengan standar SNI. Selanjutnya, garam konsumsi dialirkan ke packing unituntuk dikemas dan dipasarkan Dari perhitungan analisa ekonomi, dengan harga jual garam industri sebesar $451 per ton dan harga garam konsumsi sebesar $430 diperoleh Internal Rate Return (IRR) sebesar 14,09 %. Dengan IRR tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa pabrik layak untuk didirikan dengan suku bunga 9,75% dan waktu pengembalian modal (pay out period) selama 5,39 tahun. Perhitungan analisa ekonomi didasarkan pada discounted cash flow. Modal untuk pendirian pabrik menggunakan rasio 60% modal pinjaman dan 40% modal sendiri. Sedangkan Break Event Point (BEP) yang diperoleh adalah sebesar 60,63 %. ================================================================================================ Indonesia is the biggest archipelago country in the world. With the second longest coastline in the world and three-quarters of Indonesia's territory is the sea, Indonesia has a very large natural resource potential for water. One of the potential of these waters can be utilized as a basic material for the production of salt (NaCl). Salt is a solid white crystal with its main constituent component is Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and contains several other compounds such as Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4), Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2), and others. Salt can be produced from raw materials such as sea water, saltwater lakes, salt deposits in the soil, and salt wells. According to its function, salt is divided into 2 types, namely consumption salt and industrial salt. Consumption salt is salt with a NaCl level of at least 94.7% (dry basis), while industrial salt is salt with a NaCl level of at least 97% (dry basis). Consumption salt is used as an additive to saltiness in food, while industrial salt is intended as raw material and additional materials for the needs of other industries, such as the textile industry, pharmacy, and so on. Industrial salt has a higher NaCl content specification than consumption salt and requires a more complex manufacturing process. The raw material for Krosok Salt used has a composition of NaCl of 85%, CaSO4 of 2.1%, CaCl2 of 1%, MgCl2 of 3.8%, other impurities of 0.5%, and water content of 7.7%. The planned salt production capacity is 40,000 tons / year. In fulfilling annual capacity, the plant will operate continuously 24 hours per day for 330 days. From production of 58,373.49 tons / year or around 7370.39 kg / hour, industrial salt products can be produced at 2549.96 kg / hour and consumption salt amounting to 2550.04 kg / hour. Besides salt, this plant also produces slurry waste of 6065 kg / hour where the slurry contains NaCl, CaSO4, Na2SO4, Mg (OH) 2, NaOH, CaCO3, and water. The process of making industrial salt and consumption can be broken down into 3 stages of the process, namely the preparation (pre-treatment) of raw materials, the main process (main process) and the final stage (post-treatment). In the preparation stage, the krosok salt which has been inside the hopper in the process room is then sent to a rough roll mill machine. Deliveries are made using a screw conveyor and connected to a bucket elevator. The salt is then coarsely ground using a roll mill / wet mill machine so that the size becomes smaller and relatively uniform. The main process of krosok salt purification is the washing or washing process of salt using brine or other aromatic solutions to remove impurities such as MgCl2, CaSO4. The process occurs 2 times. The first washing uses a mixer tank, while the second washing uses a screw washer. In washing the salt raw material, stage I of the salt from the coarse roll mill machine is then sent to the salt washing tank stage 1. Stage 1 washing machine in the form of stirred skeleton. Furthermore, the washed salt krosok is sent to a stage 2 washing machine in the form of a screw washer with a stirrer model in the form of a screw or stirred tank. Washing the salt stage in stage 2 is intended to improve the washing process in stage 1 considering the level of krosok originating from the soil of conservation has an average NaCl level of 85-90%. Separation of salt crystals and salt salts from the washing results in the screw waher are then sent to the centrifuge equipment. The centrifugee function besides separating salt crystals and salt solutions, it can also function to streamline the salt refining process. Furthermore salt will go through the drying process where this process aims to reduce the water content in the salt so that the purity of the salt can increase according to the SNI standard. In the final stage, the salt from the rotary dryer will enter the rotary cooler to reduce the temperature of the salt so that it is not too hot. As soon as the salt temperature drops, salt will go through the grinding stage in the ball mill where in this process, it aims to reduce the size of the salt. After grinding, the salt is then sorted on a screener to separate the salt with the size that has been in accordance with the standard that is not in accordance with the standard. Salt that is not standardized will be returned to the ball mill. Then the salt will be put into the silo product using a screw conveyor. In product silo, salt will be collected and the flow of salt will be divided into 2 based on its function, namely for industrial salt and consumption salt. The industrial way out will go directly to the packing unit to be packed in sack bags. While the flow of consumable salt will pass through the screw conveyor which has been equipped with a sprayer to add iodine solution to comply with SNI standards. Furthermore, consumption salt is flowed into the packing unit to be packaged and marketed. From the calculation of economic analysis, the selling price of industrial salt is $ 451 per ton and the consumption salt price of $ 430 is obtained by the Internal Rate Return (IRR) of 14.09%. The IRR indicates that the plant is feasible to be established with an interest rate of 9.75% and a pay-out period of 5.39 years. Calculation of economic analysis is based on discounted cash flow. The capital for the establishment of a factory uses a ratio of 60% of loan capital and 40% of its own capital. While the Break Event Point (BEP) obtained is 60.63%.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: RSK 338.476 644 Ard p-1 2019
Uncontrolled Keywords: Garam Krosok, Garam Industi, Garam Konsumsi, Brine, Pencucian
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP159.S4 Separators (Machine)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP370 Food processing and manufacture
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Chemical Engineering > 24201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Lubna Putri Syahbana
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2021 08:00
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2021 08:00
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/61653

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