Konversi Minyak Nyamplung (Callophyllum Inophyllum L.)Menjadi Biofuel dengan Proses Hydrocracking Menggunakan Katalis NiMo/γ-Al2O3

-, Elva Febriyanti (2020) Konversi Minyak Nyamplung (Callophyllum Inophyllum L.)Menjadi Biofuel dengan Proses Hydrocracking Menggunakan Katalis NiMo/γ-Al2O3. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Keterbatasan bahan bakar fosil sebagai salah satu sumber energi yang tidak dapat diperbarui di Indonesia menjadikan wacana untuk menciptakan sumber alternatif dan terbarukan. Penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh temperatur reaksi pada proses hydrocracking dari minyak nyamplung menjadi biofuel berdasarkan parameter konversi dan selektivitas dari komponen produk biofuel, serta mempelajari kinetika reaksi proses hydrocracking minyak nyamplung tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap yaitu preparasi katalis dan proses hydrocracking minyak nyamplung. Katalis γ-Al2O3 dipreparasi terhadap logam Ni dan Mo menggunakan metode dry impregnation (impregnasi kering) selanjutnya dikarakterisasi dengan Energy Dispresion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) menunjukkan bahwa kadar pada γ-Al2O3 (8,78 wt%) dan logam Ni (1,47 wt%), Mo (1,44 wt%), untuk luas permukaan dariγ-Al2O3 diperoleh dari analisa Brunauner Emmet Teller (BET) yaitu 120.765 – 185.491 m2.g-1 dan ukuran pori rata-rata adalah 0,229 cc/g. Reaksi hydrocracking dilaksanakan di dalam reaktor batch berpengaduk (Model 4563 Parr Instrument Company, ukuran 600 ml) yang disi katalis sebanyak 10% dari volume minyak dan reaktor dilapisi dengan elemen pemanas. Kemudian minyak nyamplung sebanyak 300 ml dimasukkan ke dalam reaktor batch. Variasi temperatur antara 300 – 350oC, tekanan reaktor 10 bar setelah dialiri gas H2 dan waktu reaksi 2 jam. Peforma katalis terbaik yaitu pada katalis NiMo/γ-Al2O3 15% rasio 1:1 dengan konversi tertinggi yang dihasilkan sebesar 97,18% dan yield maksimum diperoleh pada produk gasoil sebesar 81.53%, dan konversi tertinggi pada gasoil sebesar 43.25% pada temperatur 350oC. Selektivitas bio-gasoline, bio-kerosene, dan bio-gasoil tertinggi sebesar 1,25%, 6,07%, dan 92,68% dengan menggunakan katalis NiMo/γ-Al2O3 15% rasio 1:2 pada temperatur 350 oC. Komposisi utama senyawa dalam fraksi bio-gasoil meliputi n-paraffin yaitu pentadecane (C15), heptadecane (C17), dan hexadecane (C16), kenaikan temperatur terlihat dapat mengurangi senyawa asam karboksilat dan oxygenated compounds lainnya. Model kinetika reaksi hydrocracking minyak nyamplung pada penelitian ini mengikuti reaksi orde satu pada katalis NiMo/γ-Al2O3 15% dengan dengan nilai k yang merupakan nilai slope dari regresi linier sebesar 0,02/menit atau sebagaimana ditulis 0.066/(menit.gram catalyst). Dan nilai R2 sebesar 0,9877. ==================================================================================================================== The limitations of fossil fuels as one of the non-renewable energy sources in Indonesia make the discourse to create alternative and renewable sources. This research studies the effect of reaction temperature on the hydrocracking process of nyamplung oil into biofuel based on conversion parameters and component selectivity of biofuel products, as well as studying the reaction kinetics of the nyamplung oil hydrocracking process. The research was conducted in two stages, namely the catalyst preparation and the nyamplung oil hydrocracking process. The γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared for Ni and Mo metals using the dry impregnation method and then characterized by Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) showing that the levels in γ-Al2O3 (8,78 wt%) and Ni metals (1,47 wt%), Mo (1,44 wt%), for the surface area of γ-Al2O3 obtained from the Brunauner Emmet Teller (BET) analysis, which is 120,765-185,491 m2.g-1 and the average pore size is 0.229 cc/g. The hydrocracking reaction is carried out in a stirred batch reactor (Model 4563 Parr Instrument Company, 600 ml size) which is a catalyst by 10% of the volume of oil and the reactor is coated with a heating element. Then 300 ml nyamplung oil is put into a batch reactor. Temperature variations between 300-350oC, reactor pressure 10 bar after gas H2 injected and the reaction time is 2 hours. The best performance of the catalyst is the NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst 15% with a 1: 1 ratio with the highest conversion produced at 97.18% and the maximum yield obtained for gasoil products of 81.53%, and the highest conversion at gasoil of 43.25% at 350oC. The highest selectivity of bio-gasoline, bio-kerosene, and bio-gasoil was 1,25%, 6,07%, and 92,68% using a NiMo/ γ-Al2O3 catalyst of 15% 1:2 ratio at 350 oC. The main composition of compounds in the bio-gasoil fraction includes n-paraffin, namely pentadecane (C15), heptadecane (C17), and hexadecane (C16), an increase in temperature seems to reduce carboxylic acid compounds and other oxygenated compounds. The kinetic model of the nyamplung oil hydrocracking reaction in this study followed a first-order reaction on a 15% NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with a k value which was the slope value of the linear regression of 0.02/minute or as written 0.066 / (minute.gram catalyst). And the R2 value is 0.9877.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: hydrocracking, minyak nyamplung, biofuel, katalis Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 hydrocracking, nyamplung oil, biofuel, NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP159.M6 Zeolites
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP248.3 Biochemical engineering. Bioprocess engineering
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP692.5 Oil and gasoline handling and storage
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Chemical Engineering > 24101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: Elva Febriyanti
Date Deposited: 26 Aug 2020 04:25
Last Modified: 26 Aug 2020 04:25
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/80357

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