Produksi Tepung Sorgum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) dengan Kadar Glukosa Rendah sebagai Substitusi Tepung Terigu = Production of Soghum Flour (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) with Low Glucose Content as A Substitution of Wheat Flour

Dwitasari, Ira (2021) Produksi Tepung Sorgum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) dengan Kadar Glukosa Rendah sebagai Substitusi Tepung Terigu = Production of Soghum Flour (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) with Low Glucose Content as A Substitution of Wheat Flour. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Tepung terigu merupakan bahan makanan berbasis karbohidrat. Produknya berupa mie, roti, biskuit, dan cookies. Gandum atau terigu, yang masuk ke Indonesia pada tahun 1950-an melalui program bantuan (Public Law) PL-480, kini berubah menjadi kebutuhan pokok yang harus diimpor dari pasar internasional dengan harga mahal. Tanaman gandum tidak cocok ditanam di Indonesia yang berbukit-bukit dan beriklim tropis. Kebutuhan gandum yang semakin meningkat, tidak diimbangi dengan produksi gandum yang mencukupi. Sehingga impor gandum juga mengalami kenaikan cukup besar. Dalam riset ini diharapkan mampu menghasilkan jenis komoditas pangan unggul yang adaptif terhadap kondisi agro-ekosistem Indonesia. Sehingga dapat mendukung Program Unggulan Nasional adalah Riset Ketahahan Pangan, RIRN (Rencana Induk Riset Nasional). Sumber daya lokal yang memiliki keunggulan komparatif dengan terigu sebagai bahan substitusi, yaitu sorgum. Selain itu, sorgum termasuk serealia free gluten dan rendah index glikemik sehingga sorgum aman untuk dikonsumsi oleh penderita celiac disease (CD) dan diabetes mellitus (DM). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kandungan nutrisi dan zat anti gizi (tanin dan asam fitat) pada tepung sorgum fermentasi. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kualitas kandungan tepung sorgum yang lebih mendekati standard tepung terigu komersial. Proses fermentasi sorgum ini menggunakan bakteri asam laktat, yaitu Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, dan Lactobacillus brevis. Kandungan biji sorgum utuh adalah karbohidrat 76.25%, abu 1.38%, protein 12.46%, serat 3.61%, lemak 2.97%, air 3.32%, asam fitat 13.5%, tannin 6.73%, glukosa 2.69 gr/100gr, dan indeks glikemik 40.76. Setelah proses sosoh, kandungan biji sorgum menjadi karbohidrat 78.38%, abu 1.37%, protein 8.59%, serat 3.30%, lemak 2.60%, air 5.76%, asam fitat 11.90%, tannin 6.16%, dan glukosa 2.75 gr/100gr. Pada fermentasi jam ke-56, kandungan protein pada biji sorgum meningkat dari 8.75 % menjadi 15.58 % (L. bulgaricus), 13.59 % (L. casei), dan 12.48 % (L. brevis). Kandungan glukosa menurun dari 2.66 % menjadi 2.01% (L. bulgaricus), 2.17% (L. casei), dan 2.21% (L. brevis). Kandungan asam fitat menurun dari 11.9% menjadi 0.58% (L. bulgaricus), 0.71% (L. casei), dan 0.96% (L. brevis). Kandungan tanin menurun dari 6.16% menjadi 0.36% (L. bulgaricus), 0.53% (L. casei), dan 0.61% (L. brevis). Kandungan zat antigizi setelah fermentasi berada diatas standard Codex Alimentarius International Food Standard, oleh karena itu dibutuhkan proses treatment tambahan untuk mencapai standard layak konsumsi yaitu perendaman dengan larutan NaOH. Kandungan biji sorgum termodifikasi (perendaman NaOH dan fermentasi) adalah karbohidrat 78.5896%, abu 0.55%, protein 14.67%, serat 1.96%, lemak 1.06%, air 3.18%, asam fitat 0.177%, tannin 0.063%, glukosa 1.83 gr/100gr, dan indeks glikemik 36.33. Kadar amilosa tepung sorgum meningkat dari 21.35% menjadi 36.51% sedangkan amilopektin menurun dari 57.03% menjadi 42.07%. Kelarutan tepung sorgum semakin meningkat dari 2.33% menjadi 10.53% (meningkat sebesar 8.2%). Swelling power tepung sorgum meningkat dari 1.96% menjadi 5.79%, derajat putih semakin meningkat dari 31.18% menjadi 41.11%. Volume expand brownies sorgum lebih rendah daripada brownies dari tepung terigu, nilai hardness tepung sorgum termodifikasi lebih tinggi daripada tepung terigu. Sedangkan hasil Analisa warna pada brownies tepung sorgum termodifikasi lebih gelap dari pada tepung terigu. Uji organoleptik pada brownies, yaitu warna, tekstur, aroma, dan rasa, para panelis lebih menyukai karakter dari brownies coklat dengan tepung sorgum termodifikasi. Dengan hasil analisa diatas, sorgum dapat menjadi bahan alternatif tepung terigu. = Wheat flour is a carbohydrate-based food ingredient. Its products are noodles, bread, biscuits and cookies. Wheat flour came to Indonesia in 1950 by PL-480 (Public Law) program. It has turned into a staple necessity that must be imported from the international market with a high price. Wheat plants are not suitable for planting in Indonesia, which is hilly and has a tropical climate. The increasing need for wheat was not following by sufficient wheat production. So that imports of wheat also increased considerably. This research is expected to be able to produce superior types of food commodities that are adaptive to the conditions of Indonesia's agro-ecosystem. So that it can support the National Leading Program is Food Security Research, RIRN (Rencana Induk Riset Nasional: National Research Master Plan). A local resource that has a comparative advantage with wheat as a substitution is sorghum. In addition, sorghum is a gluten-free cereal and is low on the glycemic index so that it is safe for consumption by sufferers of celiac disease (CD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aims to analyze the nutritional content and anti-nutritional substances (tannins and phytic acid) in fermented sorghum flour. This research is expected to improve the quality of sorghum flour content which is closer to the commercial flour standard. This sorghum fermentation process uses lactic acid bacteria, namely Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus brevis. The composition of whole sorghum seeds is 76.25% carbohydrates, 1.38% ash, 12.46% protein, 3.61% fiber, 2.97% fat, 3.32% water, 13.5% phytic acid, 6.73% tannins, 2.69 gr / 100gr glucose, and 40.76 glycemic index. After being peeled, the composition of sorghum seeds becomes 78.38% carbohydrates, 1.37% ash, 8.59% protein, 3.30% fiber, 2.60% fat, 5.76% water, 11.90% phytic acid, 6.16% tannins, and 2.75 gr / 100gr glucose. After 56th hour of fermentation, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and L. brevis could increase the protein content of sorghum seeds from 8.75% to 15.58%, 13.59%, and 12.48%, in respectively. L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and L. brevis could decrease the glucose content from 2.66% to 2.01%, 2.17%, and 2.21%, in respectively. L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and L. brevis could decrease the phytic acid content from 11.9% to 0.58%, 0.71%, and 0.96%, in respectively. L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and L. brevis could decrease the tannin content from 6.16% to 0.36%, 0.53%, and 0.61%. The content of anti-nutritional substances after fermentation is above the Codex Alimentarius International Food Standard standard, therefore an additional treatment process is needed to achieve a standard for consumption, namely immersion with NaOH solution. The content of modified sorghum seeds (soaking NaOH and fermentation) were 78.5896% carbohydrates, 0.55% ash, 14.67% protein, 1.96% fiber, 1.06% fat, 3.18% water, 0.177% phytic acid, 0.063% tannin, 1.83 gr / 100gr glucose, and the glycemic index 36.33. after these two processes are carried out on sorghum seeds, the amylose content of sorghum flour increased from 21.35% to 36.51% while amylopectin decreased from 57.03% to 42.07%. The solubility of sorghum flour increased from 2.33% to 10.53% (an increase of 8.2%). The swelling power of sorghum flour increased from 1.96% to 5.79%, whiteness increased from 31.18% to 41.11%. The expand volume of sorghum brownies is lower than those of wheat flour, the hardness value of modified sorghum flour is higher than that of wheat flour. Meanwhile, the color analysis results of the modified sorghum flour brownies are darker than wheat flour. Organoleptic test on brownies (color, texture, aroma, and taste), the panelists preferred the character of chocolate brownies with modified sorghum flour. With the results above analysis, sorghum can be an alternative ingredient for wheat flour.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fermentasi, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus brevis, Perendaman larutan NaOH, Tepung sorgum, Fermentation, NaOH solution submersion, Sorghum flour.
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR74.8 Bacteria
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP248.3 Biochemical engineering. Bioprocess engineering
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP370 Food processing and manufacture
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Chemical Engineering > 24101-(S2) Master Thesis
Depositing User: Ira Dwitasari
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2021 05:20
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2021 05:20
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/83765

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