Pra Desain Pabrik Pembuatan Garam Industri Soda Kaustik Dari Garam Rakyat

Fitrayawati, Ainun and Amin, Nuruddin (2021) Pra Desain Pabrik Pembuatan Garam Industri Soda Kaustik Dari Garam Rakyat. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

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Abstract

Garam merupakan salah satu bahan kimia yang sering dimanfaatkan oleh manusia khususnya dalam bidang konsumsi. Penyusun terbesar garam yaitu senyawa Natrium Klorida (NaCl). Selain NaCl terdapat pula zat-zat pengotor antara lain CaSO4, MgSO4, MgCl2 dan lain-lain. Garam diperoleh dengan tiga cara, yaitu penguapan air laut dengan sinar matahari, penambangan batuan garam (rock salt) dan sumur air garam (brine). Garam rakyat merupakan garam yang diproduksi secara konvensional oleh masyarakat yang memanfaatkan tenaga panas matahari dengan tujuan membuat kandungan NaCl semakin pekat. Berdasarkan pemanfaatannya, garam dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu garam konsumsi dan garam industri. Berdasarkan Permenprin No. 88/M-IND/PER/10/2014, garam konsumsi beryodium memiliki kadar NaCl minimal 94%, sedangkan kadar NaCl pada garam industri dibutuhkan kadar yang lebih tinggi tergantung jenis industrinya. Pada industri perminyakan dibutuhkan kadar NaCl lebih dari 95%, pada industri petrokimia dibutuhkan kadar NaCl lebih dari 96%, dan pada industri farmasi dibutuhkan kadar NaCl lebih dari 99,8%. Pra Desain Pabrik Pembuatan Garam Industri Soda Kaustik dari Garam Rakyat ini direncanakan mulai beroperasi tahun 2024 dengan kapasitas produksi sebesar 150.000 ton/tahun. Lokasi pendirian pabrik ini direncanakan di Desa Randal Kumalas Kecamatan Banyuayar, Kabupaten Sampang, Madura, Jawa Timur. Kabupaten Sampang dipilih menjadi lokasi pendirian pabrik karena merupakan kabupaten dengan ketersediaan bahan baku yang tinggi di Jawa Timur yaitu sebesar 350.891,307 ton/tahun dengan luas lahan 2.814,51 Ha. Di Jawa Timur juga banyak perusahaan yang yang membutuhkan garam industri sebagai bahan baku. PT. Susanti Megah, PT. Sumatraco Langgeng Makmur, PT. Widatra Bhakti dan PT. Kertas Tjiwi Kimia dapat dijadikan sebagai target pasar pabrik ini. Dalam pemenuhan kapasitas tahunan, pabrik akan beroperasi kontinyu 24 jam per hari selama 330 hari. Dengan bahan baku sebesar 23,773.7391 kg/jam dapat dihasilkan produk garam industri sebesar 18,939.3939 kg/jam. Proses produksi garam industri dari garam rakyat dapat diuraikan menjadi 4 tahapan proses. Tahap pertama adalah tahap pre-treatment bahan baku. Garam rakyat dari gudang bahan baku diangkut meggunakan Screw Conveyor I menuju ke Roll Crusher I untuk dilakukan proses size reduction agar ukurannya menjadi lebih kecil, relatif seragam dan proses pemecahan inti kristal dari garam rakyat. Lalu, garam rakyat dialirkan ke Screener I dan ditampung di Silo I sebelum dilakukan proses pencucian I. Tahap kedua adalah tahap pencucian dan pemisahan. Pada tahap pencucian, garam dicuci mengunakan larutan brine untuk menghilangkan pengotor seperti Ca, Mg dan SO4. Proses pencucian dilakukan secara 2 tahap, dimana pencucian I menggunakan Mixer Tank, sedangkan pecucian II menggunakan Screw Washer. Pada pencucian I, garam rakyat dari Silo I dialirkan ke Mixer Tank. Selanjutnya, garam rakyat yang telah tercuci dikirimkan ke Screw Washer. Pencucian II ini dimaksudkan untuk menyempurnakan proses pencucian I mengingat garam rakyat yang berasal dari lahan penggaraman hanya berkadar NaCl 80-90%. Kemudian, garam rakyat hasil pencucian dari Screw Washer dialirkan ke Centrifuge untuk dilakukan proses pemisahan. Pada Centrifuge, garam rakyat dipisahkan antara kristal garam dengan larutannya, dimana kristal garam akan menempel pada dinding Centrifuge, sedangkan larutannya akan keluar dari Centrifuge dan langsung dialirkan menuju Brine Tank II. Tahap ketiga adalah tahap pengeringan dan pengemasan. Garam dari centrifuge akan dialirkan menuju Rotary Dryer untuk dilakukan proses pengeringan. Proses pengeringan ini bertujuan untuk mengurangi kadar air dalam garam agar kemurnian garam dapat meningkat sesuai dengan standar SNI. Lalu, garam dari Rotary Dryer akan dibawa oleh Screw Conveyor III menuju Rotary Cooler. Dalam Rotary Cooler dilakukan proses pendinginan agar suhu garam tidak terlalu panas. Kemudian, garam dibawa oleh Bucket Elevator III menuju Roll Crusher II untuk dilakukan proses size reduction agar ukurannya menjadi lebih kecil. Setelah itu, garam di-screening pada alat Screener II untuk dipisahkan antara garam yang ukurannya telah sesuai standar dengan garam yang ukurannya tidak sesuai standar. Garam yang ukurannya telah sesuai standar akan ditampung dalam Silo II dan akan langsung menuju proses pengemasan, sedangkan garam yang tidak sesuai standar akan dikembalikan menuju Roll Crusher II dengan bantuan Bucket Elevator IV. In addition, the dirty brine solution obtained from the Screw Washer and Centrifuge would be accommodated in Brine Tank II and would be flowed to the Reactor for the brine-making process for the next washing process. Tahap keempat adalah tahap pembuatan brine. Brine dibuat dengan cara melarutkan 10% garam rakyat dengan air dan koagulan. Garam rakyat diangkut menggunakan Screw Conveyor II menuju Reactor. Pada Reactor, garam rakyat dicampur dengan air dan direaksikan dengan NaOH, Ca(OH)2, dan Na2CO3 melalui proses pengadukan menggunakan agitator agar garam terlarut. NaOH, Ca(OH)2, dan Na2CO3 berfungsi sebagai koagulan untuk membentuk inti endapan dari pengotor dalam brine. Kemudian, dilakukan pengendapan terhadap campuran larutan brine dan koagulan di dalam Clarifier. Larutan brine yang telah bersih dialirkan menuju Brine Tank I. Sedangkan endapan yang terbentuk dari hasil pengendapan di Clarifier akan dialirkan menuju Solid Water Treatment Plant (SWTP) dengan bantuan Belt Conveyor III . Selain itu, larutan brine kotor yang diperoleh dari Screw Washer dan Centrifuge akan ditampung di Brine Tank II lalu dialirkan menuju Reactor untuk proses pembuatan brine untuk proses pencucian selanjutnya. Pra Desain Pabrik Pembuatan Garam Industri Soda Kaustik dari Garam Rakyat ini dirancang sebagai perusahaan yang berbadan hukum Perseroan Terbatas (PT) dengan sistem organisasi garis dan staff. Untuk dapat mendirikan pabrik dengan kapasitas produksi sebesar 150.000 ton/tahun, maka diperlukan total modal investasi sebesar Rp 219.880.433.544 dan total biaya produksi sebesar Rp 269.984.941.138 dengan estimasi hasil penjualan sebesar Rp 312.000.000.000 per tahun. Estimasi umur pabrik ini adalah 10 tahun dengan Internal Rate of Return (IRR) sebesar 13,64%, Pay Out Time (POT) 2,9 tahun, dan Break Even Point (BEP) sebesar 51%. ==================================================================================================== Salt is one of the chemicals that are often used by humans, especially in the consumption sector. The largest constituent of salt is sodium chloride (NaCl). In addition there are also impurities include CaSO4, MgSO4, MgCl2 and others. Salt can be produced by three ways, there are evaporation of sea water using sunlight, rock salt mining, and brine wells. Solar salts is produced conventionally by using the sun’s heat to make the NaCl content more concentrated. Based on its utilization, salt was divided into 2 groups namely consumption salt and industrial salt. Based on Permenprin No. 88/M-IND/PER/10/2014, NaCl levels in consumption salt were a minimum of 94%, while NaCl levels in industrial salt were needed higher level depending on the type of industry. In the petroleum industry NaCl levels of more than 95% were required, in the petrochemical industry NaCl levels of more than 96% were required, and in the pharmaceutical industry mroe than 99,8% NaCl levels were required. The Pre Design Plant of Industrial Caustic Soda Salt from Solar Salt was planned to start operating in 2024 with a production capacity of 150.000 tons/year. The location of the plant was planned in Randal Kumalas village, Banyuanyar district, Sampang Regency, Madura, East Java. Sampang Regency was chosen to be the location for the factory construction because it is a district with a high availability of raw materials in East Java, ammounting to 350,891,307 tons/year with a land area of 2,814.51 hectares. In East Java, there were also many companies that need industrial salt as raw material. PT. Susanti Megah, PT. Sumatraco Langgeng Makmur, PT. Widatra Bhakti and PT. Tjiwi Kimia paper can be used as the target market for this factory. In meeting its annual capacity, the plant will be operated continuously 24 hours per day for 330 days. With a raw material of 23,773,7391 kg/hour, an industrial salt product of 18,939,399 kg/hour can be produced. The process of producing industrial salt from solar salt can be broken down into 4 process steps. The first step was the pre-treatment of raw materials. Solar salt from the raw material warehouse was transported using Screw Conveyor I to Roll Crusher I for size reduction process, so that the salt size becomes smaller, relatively uniform, and the process of breaking the crystal core of the solar salt. Then, the solar salt was streamed to Screener I and stored in Silo I before the 1st washing process. The second step was the washing and separation. In the washing step, salt was washed using brine solution so that impurities such as seperti Ca, Mg dan SO4 were removed. The washing process was carried out in 2 steps, where the 1st washing step was used a Mixer Tank and the 2nd washing step was used a Screw Washer. In 1st washing step, the solar salt from Silo I was transported to Mixer Tank. Then, the salt were sent to the Screw Washer. The 2nd washing step was intended to perfect the 1st washing step considering that the solar salt content originally was only 80-90% NaCl. Furthermore, washed salts from Screw Washer were streamed into the Centrifuge for the separation process. In the centrifuge, the salt is separated between the salt crystals and the brine solution, where the salt crystals would stick to the walls of the centrifuge, while the solution would come out of the centrifuge and flowed directly to Brine Tank II. The third step is the drying and packaging. The salt from the centrifuge will be streamed to the Rotary Dryer for the drying process. This drying process was aimed to reduce the water content in the salt so that the salt purity could be increased in accordance with SNI standards. Then, the salt from the Rotary Dryer would be transported by the Screw Conveyor III to the Rotary Cooler. In the Rotary Cooler, the cooling process was carried out so that the salt temperature was not too hot. Then, the salt was carried by Bucket Elevator III to Roll Crusher II for the size reduction process to make it smaller. After that, the salt was sorted on a Screener II to be separated between salts that have been sized according to standards and salts that were not sized according to standards. Salts whose size is in accordance with the standard would be stored in Silo II and would go directly to the packaging process, while salt that was not in accordance with the standard will be carried by Bucket Elevator IV back to the Roll Crusher II. The fourth step is the brine preparation. Brine was made by dissolving 10% of solar salt with water and coagulants. Solar salt was transported by the Screw Conveyor II to the Reactor. In the Reactor, solar salt was mixed with water and reacted with NaOH, Ca(OH)2, dan Na2CO3 using an agitator. NaOH, Ca(OH)2, dan Na2CO3 was used as coagulants to form a core of sediment from impurity in brine. Then, the brine and coagulant solution mixture was deposited in the Clarifier. The clean brine solution was flowed to Brine Tank I. While the sediment formed from the deposition in the Clarifier will be transported to the Solid Water Treatment Plant by Belt Conveyor III. In addition, the dirty brine solution obtained from the Screw Washer and Centrifuge would be accommodated in Brine Tank II and then would be streamed to the Reactor for the brine preparation process, so the clean brine could be used for the next washing process. The Pre-Design Plant of Industrial Caustic Soda Salt from Solar Salt was designed as a Limited Liability Company (PT) with a line and staff organization system. To be able to establish a factory with a production capacity of 150,000 tons/year, a total investment capital of Rp 219.880.433.544 is required and a total production cost of Rp 269.984.941.138 with an estimated sales proceeds of Rp 312.000.000.000 per year. The estimated age of this factory is 10 years with an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 13,64%, a Pay Out Time (POT) of 2,9 years, and a Break Even Point (BEP) of 51%.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Brine, Garam Rakyat, Garam Industri, Pencucian, Pemurnian, Brine, Solar Salt, Industrial Salt, Washing, Purification
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP155.5 Chemical plants--Design and construction
T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP370 Food processing and manufacture
Divisions: Faculty of Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering (INDSYS) > Chemical Engineering > 24201-(S1) Undergraduate Thesis
Depositing User: Ainun Fitrayawati
Date Deposited: 10 Aug 2021 15:16
Last Modified: 10 Aug 2021 15:16
URI: https://repository.its.ac.id/id/eprint/85536

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